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The final graph, below, shows the continuous data for only VO2 side-by-side for the 20 minute period. The upper (blue) line represents oxygen consumption under control conditions, while the lower line (red) represents oxygen consumption following the BHB ingestion. In theory, given that the same load was being overcome, and the same amount of mechanical work was being done, these lines should be identical.


Ketones are an alternate energy or fuel source for brain and body that our bodies have naturally produced and used for millennia. Ketones have recently leapt to the forefront of health and wellness conversations worldwide as the scientific body of research that seeks to understand their numerous unique properties and profound systemic effects has begun to grow (see below).
Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB): Nutrition strategies that rely on carbohydrates always leave us needing more food. On the other hand, the ketogenic diet relies on and taps into your body’s stored fat for longer, more stable energy with no bonking. Many keto-lovers adopt this lifestyle because they love the mental clarity, focus, and productivity that they experience while in ketosis. Whether you’re full-time keto or not, our Perfect Keto is designed to support ultimate mental performance.
A recent study, Ketone Bodies Mimic the Life Span Extending Properties of Caloric Restriction, showed the effects of exogenous ketones on longevity (ketone esters, specifically) and concluded that ketones should be labeled as an “anti-aging” compound (suggesting that the real reason caloric restriction has been shown to extend life span is actually due to resulting ketosis).
The famous keto-breath is powerful enough to throw shade on your increasingly ripped rig. The mouth-based ketones are released when your body scalds fat are responsible for the pong. Going into ketosis by changing your diet means your body doesn’t have carbs as a fuel source, so you’re using fats and proteins for energy, which fuels the potency of the fireworks seeping from your grill. The same can happen when taking supplements, but not by the same degree – proving that changing your diet it obviously a more potent fat burning tool. A lot of people also report gastric distress, so you could offend those you’re co-habituating with. What’s more, they can have a slight diuretic effect, which can deplete your magnesium, potassium and sodium stores, so make sure your levels are topped up when you’re out for a extra long exercise stint. Research in Nutrition and Metabolism on animals, found there were no negative side effects, but whether this extends to humans is still up for discussion. Fortunately, you’re more likely benefit from the upsides such as improved endurance, appetite suppression and fat burning.
Sometimes waiting for your body to make the switch from carbohydrate metabolism to beta hydroxybutyrate metabolism (aka ketosis) can be an uncomfortable and lengthy process. Another way to get beta hydroxybutyrate into your system so your body is using “clean” energy is by taking it supplementally or through nutrition. A betahydroxybutyrate supplement is what can be used in this scenario. This is an exogenous ketone. Exogenous means you get it from outside of your body. Think EX = exit = outside.
Your brain has a very tight barrier so not everything in the blood can get through. This is called the blood brain barrier. Because your brain uses 25% of the energy that your entire body uses throughout the day, you need to make sure it is fueled appropriately. Glucose can’t directly cross the blood brain barrier. When you eat carbs, you get swings in energy that is available to cross the blood brain barrier which leads to mental fog.
It’s hard to say. Achieving a natural state of ketosis (as in, by eating a ketogenic diet) is thought to be beneficial in the short-term. But experts don’t know the long-term effects, Palumbo says. And some suspect that it could lead to problems like kidney damage or an increased risk for heart disease (and day-to-day keto diet side effects are, at this point, well-documented). Assuming that ketone supplements do work identically to natural ketones, taking them long-term could have similar health effects.
Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate “ketogenic” diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB.
Ketone Bodies are then used by tissues as a source of energy3 through a pathway that leads to formation from β-hydroxybutyrate of two molecules of acetyl CoA, which are used finally in the Krebs cycle. It is interesting to note that the KBs are able to produce more energy compared with glucose because of the metabolic effects of ketosis—the high chemical potential of 3-β-hydroxybutyrate leads to an increase in the ΔG0 of ATP hydrolysis.3 
Also, it’s important to remember that just because something may be SAFE (and to reiterate, I’m not saying a long term ketogenic diet is safe), it doesn’t mean it’s good for you or beneficial. Running Marathons could be considered safe (especially if it’s on a closed race circuit), but does this mean it’s good for you? Or should you be out running marathons every day?
I think almost everyone agrees with me when I say that the ketogenic diet is probably one of the most complex and difficult eating plans out there. Even when you’re not on a diet or trying to lose weight you still have to bring a lot of attention to detail. Getting into ketosis isn’t as important as we would think, but there are still 5 simple steps we can make to get into a ketotic state.
When you start this process, changes in your daily food and drink intake are designed to increase the amount of healthy fats being burned by your liver, which produces and releases more of these endogenous ketones into your blood stream. When breastfeeding, the female body naturally burns more fat to produce the endogenous ketones, which is an infants resource to the nutrients they need for their young minds. As an adult, a lot of us have substituted the goodness of this compound for more sugar fueled energy. However, I'm sure there are many of you that are wondering right now, "does keto work at all and if so how long does ketosis last?" After numerous tests and studies, it has been recognized that it indeed does work and has been proven to have long lasting effects, so you can rest easy and maybe throw away those weight loss pills that claim instant results but don’t seem to do much.
When our cells undergo the process of autophagy, non-essential parts like damaged proteins are recycled and invading microorganisms and toxic compounds are removed. This means that autophagy plays an important role in stopping the aging process, reversing disease, and preventing cancer, but it doesn’t happen all the time. Fasting, protein restriction, and carbohydrate restriction are the three main ways that can initiate different autophagic processes — all of which are not the same. This is part of the reason why a ketogenic diet has so many positive effects, and it also shows you why intermittent fasting is a way to improve your diet even more.
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Interestingly, the effects of exogenous ketones on blood substrate concentrations were preserved with the metabolic stimulus of a mixed meal. Following KE drinks, FFA and glucose fell and remained low in both fed and fasted subjects, despite higher insulin throughout the fed arm, suggesting that there was no synergistic effect of insulin and βHB to further lower blood glucose or FFA. In agreement with previous work, the threshold for the effects of βHB on glucose and lipids appears to be low (<1 mM), as there was no significant dose-response relationship between increasing blood βHB and the small changes in plasma FFA, TG or glucose across all of the study drinks (Mikkelsen et al., 2015).

What is the reason for needing to keep our stress levels down? Well the body reacts to stress, whether physical or emotional, by dumping glycogen and potentially glucose in your bloodstream, thus elevating insulin levels. This in turn blocks our bodies from entering ketosis. To keep your mental and emotional stress to a minimum, it may be wise to meditate, sleep, relax, or do something that is fun and care-free.
Fortunately a new way to test ketosis has been developed - and that is by measuring acetone levels in the breath. This is rather new technology but based on the reports I have seen it does look reasonably reliable. The testing process is simple, you use a device like that made by Ketonix, you breathe into it, wait a minute or so and it will give you a color indicating the state of ketosis you are in. However, there are numerous downsides:

Ketone monoester and diester compounds may circumvent the problems associated with inorganic ion consumption in KS drinks. KE ingestion rapidly increased blood ketone concentrations to >5 mM in animals (Desrochers et al., 1995a,b; Clarke et al., 2012a) and the first oral, non-racemic KE for human consumption, (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, raised blood βHB concentrations to 3–5 mM in healthy adults (Clarke et al., 2012b; Shivva et al., 2016) and athletes (Cox et al., 2016; Holdsworth et al., 2017; Vandoorne et al., 2017). However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this KE with confounding factors, such as prandial state or multiple KE drinks, have not been characterized.

Personally, I think it is wise to include a regular carb meal in your diet if you are going to follow a ketogenic diet. Long term ketogenic diets do seem to downregulate your thyroid and metabolism, and a weekly carb meal (or carb day) can help avoid this. The Carb Nite diet by J. Kiefer is a good example of this. And BJJCaveman posted his labs showing how a weekly carb meal helped his thyroid HERE.
Bottom line: EK isn't the magic pill for instant weight loss. EK triggers ketosis which is a metabolic state where your body burns fat for fuel. EK increases satiety and feeling full, and boosts energy for exercise which helps you lose weight for the long term. You should always aim for the long term and sustainable weight loss and keep the weight off for good instead of looking for a quick fix.
Hi all…thanks for your articles and info. I am currently on a paleo diet, but want to lose more weight and bring it up a notch w/ ketogenic diet and be in ketosis. Not sure which product is best? Do you take the MCT oil and also a ketone powder. I know it may be difficult at first, but I am up for the challenge as we start the new year and would like to loose 40 lbs by May/June. Please advise as to what products are best so I can purchase. THANKS
Ketōnd discloses everything right there on their label so you know EXACTLY what you are getting. I have tried numerous ketone supplements and I can tell you I was not surprised that Ketōnd gave me more energy, mental clarity and improved my training more than any other ketone supplement. But take a few minutes and look at the product comparisons. You will see that Ketōnd has more ketones per serving and comes in at a fraction of the cost of every other product out there.
Many of us have heard the saying, “Don’t blame the butter for what the bread did.”  Similarly, don’t blame the sodium for what the fries did.  Sodium has been shown to help maintain fluid balance, normal muscle and nerve function, and blood pressure and volume[1]. The movement of sodium ions and other electrolytes across cell membranes helps to facilitate muscle contraction and nerve impulses. Electrolytes also help to maintain fluid balance across intracellular and extracellular spaces and blood volume.
When choosing an exogenous ketone supplement, make sure to read the ingredients carefully. Brands that have a “proprietary blend” don’t allow you to see the quantities of each ingredient in their mix. You should know every detail about the supplements you choose, so you know exactly what is affecting your body, and you have control over the variables of your intake.
Lastly, EK products in general ​are usually in the form of salts, which is why they are referred to as BHB Salts. The BHB ketones are bound to common salts such as sodium​, calcium, magnesium and potassium​ to improve absorption rate. These salts are also the core electrolytes your body needs to help you avoid feeling mentally drained and physically lousy during the keto-flu transition period.
Weight loss benefits ushered the keto diet into the spotlight. That’s how most people have likely heard about ketones, a fuel source created naturally by the body when burning fat. But more and more research points to diverse applications of ketones in the blood outside of just fat loss, from improved endurance performance to the treatment of medical conditions like epilepsy.
Miriam, Thank you for the questions. I am going to do my best here to provide you with answers: Q: The manufacture of BHB salts involves ionic bonding of an anion (beta-hydroxybutyrate) with a cation (Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg+). At least one of the exogenous ketone products you listed does in fact contain potassium ions. People taking potassium-sparing drugs need to know this and that raises concerns about leaving it off your chart. A: The table lists the BHB and the mineral content from the BHB salts (no added minerals). Therefore, since potassium BHB is not in any of the… Read more »
Ketogenic diets have been successfully used to treat diseases that have an underlying metabolic component, effectively decreasing seizures in recalcitrant pediatric epilepsy (Kossoff et al., 2003), lowering blood glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Feinman et al., 2015) and aiding weight-loss (Bueno et al., 2013). Emerging evidence supports several clinical uses of ketogenic diets, for example in neurodegenerative diseases (Vanitallie et al., 2005), specific genetic disorders of metabolism (Veech, 2004) and as an adjunct to cancer therapy (Nebeling et al., 1995). Ketone bodies themselves may underlie the efficacy of the ketogenic diet, either through their role as a respiratory fuel, by altering the use of carbohydrate, protein and lipids (Thompson and Wu, 1991; Cox et al., 2016), or through other extra- and intracellular signaling effects (Newman and Verdin, 2014). Furthermore, ketone metabolism may offer a strategy to improve endurance performance and recovery from exercise (Cox et al., 2016; Evans et al., 2017; Holdsworth et al., 2017; Vandoorne et al., 2017). However, achieving compliance to a ketogenic diet can be difficult for both patients and athletes and may have undesirable side effects, such as gastro-intestinal upset (Cai et al., 2017), dyslipidemia (Kwiterovich et al., 2003) or decreased exercise “efficiency” (Edwards et al., 2011; Burke et al., 2016). Hence, alternative methods to raise blood ketone concentrations have been sought to provide the benefits of a ketogenic diet with no other dietary changes.
There have been studies done on long term ketogenic diets. This 2004 paper inn Experimental & Clinical Cardiology titled ‘Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients’ concluded that obese patients following a ketogenic diet for 24 ‘reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.’

There is so much talk about the benefits of a ketogenic diet and its ability to improve fat burning, brain health, energy and anti-aging.  The main units of energy on a ketogenic diet are ketone bodies, of which beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is the main player!  This article will go over the health benefits of BHB and exogenous ketones. Additionally, this article will cover strategies on using exogenous ketones in your daily life.
Follow our simple tips to get into ketosis and speed up the process. Our tips are scientifically-proven to work and are completely safe for everyone. If you need more guidance to achieve ketosis safely and effectively, enroll in our free Ketocademy course. The course will teach you everything there is to know about entering ketosis in less than 3 hours. Try it out today!
I don’t recommend that you go straight for a 1-2 day fast, but begin by restricting yourself to certain eating windows. Typically people restrict themselves to the hours of 5pm – 11pm. People often refer to their fasting windows by numbers: 19/5 or 21/3, for example, means 19 hours of fasting and 5 hours eating or 21 hours fasting and 3 hours eating, respectively.
Until there is more definitive information on the necessary blood levels and the differing proportions of BOHB an AcAc to optimize cellular and organ functions, it will be difficult to specify the dosing and duration of supplemental ketones. However for fuel use, and very likely for exercise performance as well, sustained blood levels of BOHB in the range of 0.5 mM to 1.0 mM are likely to be required. This is achieved physiologically by an estimated ketone production of 50-100 grams per day in a keto-adapted human.
Exogenous ketones don’t seem to improve high-intensity, glucose-intensive exercise, increasing fat burning during steady state exercise but dropping top-end high-intensity performance. Another study found that ketone dieters reduced 50-minute time trial performance in cyclists, though another group of researchers have criticized the methods. Even when a ketone ester didn’t improve performance in the shuttle run to exhaustion and 15 meter sprint repeats, it did reduce the drop in brain function following the exercise.
Why is this desirable? Think about energy production in your body much like macro energy consumption on a planetary level. Coal is gross and dirty and messes tons of different things up. You need to continue to burn it to get energy. Solar power is free, clean and pretty much limitless. This is pretty much the same story when you are burning carbs (coal) versus fats (solar) for energy.

A meal high in carbohydrate and calories significantly decreased peak d-βHB by ~ 1 mM (Figure ​(Figure4A)4A) and reduced the d-βHB AUC by 27% (p < 0.001, Figure ​Figure4B).4B). There were no significant changes in d-βHB Tmax (fed = 73 ± 6 min vs. fasted 66 ± 4 min). Despite the differences in d-βHB kinetics after the meal, there were no effects of food on urinary ketone excretion (Figure ​(Figure4C),4C), plasma AcAc (Figure ​(Figure4D)4D) or breath acetone (Figure ​(Figure4E)4E) following KE ingestion. Plasma AcAc kinetics followed a similar time course to d-βHB, with the ratio of blood d-βHB: AcAc being 6:1 when KE drinks were consumed whilst fasted, and 4:1 following the meal. As observed in Study 1, breath acetone concentrations rose more slowly than blood ketone concentrations, reaching a plateau at 150 min and remaining elevated for at least 4 h (Figure ​(Figure4E4E).


I bought this because I didn't want to be sucked into an autoshipment for a ketone supplement like KetoOS, which is HOT right now. I did the comparison on the ingredient list between this product and KetoOS and they are quite similar. I think one of the big differences is that KetoOS has the option of caffeinated or non-caffeinated powders. For the cost and the free shipping (I'm a Prime member), it's something I could easily fit into my budget, rather than the $114 canister you'd get with KetoOS.
“Consumption of KETO//OS before exercise can result in significant decreases in oxygen demand and increases in performance. We recommend 30 minutes before a workout. Note: Pre-workout use is recommended after building up to a full dose. The best way to maximize energy, appetite control and sustain energy is to take KETO//OS first thing in morning. To maximize benefits, build up to 1 serving 3 times daily – morning, afternoon and early evening. May be used with carbohydrate supplements if desired or by itself as a non-carb, highly efficient energy source.”
BHB Salts and exogenous ketone supplements are literally changing the supplement industry. These products are pretty new and a little more expensive than other supplements. But I’d rather pay for something that works then spend tons of money chasing products that claim to work.  One of the most popular ketone supplements is Pruvit’s Keto OS. You can check out our review here.
When you restrict carbs, the kidneys excrete a lot of sodium. Not replacing this sodium can leave you feeling light headed. I recommend having a big glass of spring water with ½ teaspoon of Celtic sea salt twice a day (first thing in the morning and midafternoon are two times that work well). A long with this, make sure you use a lot of salt on your meals.
It is important to define what it means to be “in ketosis”. If being “in ketosis” means having ketones in your blood, then of course ketone supplements get you into ketosis. But that is different from being in an endogenous ketogenic, fat-burning state as a result of following a ketogenic diet. Getting this distinction right will go a long way towards stopping ketone salts companies from using misleading marketing about the issue. We need to reach a consensus about what being “in ketosis” means and then force companies to use that definition.

Best exogenous ketone I've tried (bhb). I've been eating a keto diet since Feb 2017 and notice athletic/ mental improvements with all the products I've tried but this has the best flavor by far . Bhb ranges from jet fuel (nutricost 4-1) to a citrus lemonade and this is the later. This is my goto for sure! Ketocana worked well and tastes ok but I prefer the taste of keto bhb

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