Intellectual property covering uses of dietary ketone and ketone ester supplementation is owned by BTG Ltd., the University of Oxford, the National Institute of Health and TΔS Ltd. Should royalties ever accrue from these patents, KC and PC, as inventors, will receive a share of the royalties under the terms prescribed by the University of Oxford. KC is a director of TΔS Ltd., a company spun out of the University of Oxford to develop and commercialize products based on the science of ketone bodies in human nutrition. At the time of data collection and manuscript preparation, BS was an employee of TΔS Ltd., funded by the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. SH is an employee of NTT DOCOMO, Inc. (Japan). The other authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Miriam, Thank you for the questions. I am going to do my best here to provide you with answers: Q: The manufacture of BHB salts involves ionic bonding of an anion (beta-hydroxybutyrate) with a cation (Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg+). At least one of the exogenous ketone products you listed does in fact contain potassium ions. People taking potassium-sparing drugs need to know this and that raises concerns about leaving it off your chart. A: The table lists the BHB and the mineral content from the BHB salts (no added minerals). Therefore, since potassium BHB is not in any of the… Read more »

The protocols carried out in these studies were approved by the the South West Frenchay NHS REC (15/SW/0244) (Study 1) and London Queen's Square REC (14/LO/0288) (Study 2 and 3). The studies were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki, apart from pre-registration in a database. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
Ketone monoester and diester compounds may circumvent the problems associated with inorganic ion consumption in KS drinks. KE ingestion rapidly increased blood ketone concentrations to >5 mM in animals (Desrochers et al., 1995a,b; Clarke et al., 2012a) and the first oral, non-racemic KE for human consumption, (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, raised blood βHB concentrations to 3–5 mM in healthy adults (Clarke et al., 2012b; Shivva et al., 2016) and athletes (Cox et al., 2016; Holdsworth et al., 2017; Vandoorne et al., 2017). However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this KE with confounding factors, such as prandial state or multiple KE drinks, have not been characterized.

With oral ketone supplementation, we observed a significant elevation in blood βHB without dietary restriction and with little change in lipid biomarkers (Fig. 1). Over the 4 week study, MCT-supplemented rats demonstrated decreased HDL compared to controls. No significant changes were observed in any of the triglycerides or lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) with any of the remaining exogenously applied ketone supplements. It should be noted that the rats used for this study had not yet reached full adult body size [79]. Their normal growth rate and maturation was likely responsible for the changes in triglyceride and lipoprotein levels observed in the control animals over the 4 week study (baseline data not shown, no significant differences) [80, 81]. Future studies are needed to investigate the effect of ketone supplementation on fully mature and aged animals. Overall, our study suggests that oral ketone supplementation has little effect on the triglyceride or lipoprotein profile after 4 weeks. However, it is currently unknown if ketone supplementation would affect lipid biomarkers after a longer duration of consumption. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of ketone supplements on blood triglyceride and lipoproteins after chronic administration and as a means to further enhance the hyperketonemia and improve the lipid profile of the clinically implemented (4:1) KD.
If you are having a weight loss plateau and you’ve been at the same weight for 3 or more weeks, try changing something to get back to that stable weight loss rate, like a ketone supplement. It would be exciting to lose more than that each week, but our bodies don’t adjust to dramatic changes well, and a slower rate of loss leads to more of the weight staying off in the future.
This molecule is quite essential if you are using your own fat for fuel, or taking BHB as an exogenous ketone supplement to increase energy production — essentially to be in nutritional ketosis. If you’re not certain about what ketones are or what nutritional ketosis is, you should back up a little bit and read more about that on my company site, Perfect Keto.

Hey Staci, great to hear you’re getting back into it! To answer your question, it really depends on the individual but there are definitely things you can do to get back into ketosis faster – working out to deplete your glycogen stores or implementing intermittent fasting into your regimen – these are 2 common ways that should kick start you back in the right direction!
I followed 30g carbs as my limit each day, moderate protein, increased fat intake (avocado at each main meal plus carefully chosen oils, eggs and nuts) and have upped green veg to the bucket load and incorporated a juiced lemon in water to my morning, as well as my usual water consumption. I also did intermittent fasting Mon to Thur, 18 hours fasting each day.
One thing to remember here is that even if your calculated daily ‘keto approved’ protein allowance is (let’s say) 150g, that doesn’t mean you can eat 150g in one meal and still be in ketosis. You may find that you can’t eat more than 40g of protein at a time, otherwise you will drop out of ketosis. OR, you may find you can eat 50g of protein but you need a LOT of fat. Whereas a small serve of 15g of protein without fat might knock you out of ketosis. 
MCT Oil is a keto supplement that helps your body make ketones. The oil contains pure medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), which are types of fatty acids that your body prefers using for immediate energy. Unlike long-chain fatty acids, MCTs don't require enzymes and bile for digestion and they go straight to the liver where they are used for making free fatty acids or ketones. Studies on MCTs show that they promote weight loss [5].
I began by simply playing all of the games over and over again (each game many dozens of times over the period of a week) to remove any “learning effect.” I then selected two games from each category (for a total of 10 games) and for a period of five days prior to “ketone-day” played each game five times each day. My “before ketones” baseline scores put me in the top 4% of all Lumosity users, so I was already in a good place. But could I improve even more, just one hour after consuming the ketones?
The final graph, below, shows the continuous data for only VO2 side-by-side for the 20 minute period. The upper (blue) line represents oxygen consumption under control conditions, while the lower line (red) represents oxygen consumption following the BHB ingestion. In theory, given that the same load was being overcome, and the same amount of mechanical work was being done, these lines should be identical.
Hi.. I’ve recently started drinking Keto OS Max and have lost about 20 pounds in the past 4 weeks without strictly sticking to the keto diet and have not exercised once. The only issue I have with Keto OS is the price really. I am wondering how the other BHB/MCT products like Ketond and PerfectKeto compare to Keto OS and what product on the market comes closest to the Keto OS recipes beneficial ingredients. TIA
Perfect Keto MCT Oil Powder is number one on this list for a few different reasons. The company is founded by functional medicine clinician Dr. Anthony Gustin and each ingredient is used in specific amounts to provide maximum ketone benefits. They use zero binders and fillers often found in other MCT oil powders. It’s a premium product and they don’t make up for it by jacking up the price. However, number 3 on this list has a very similar product at a better value. That’s what keeps this from being a complete 5. However, it’s quality is one of the very best. This MCT Oil powder is one of the only MCT powders that uses ZERO additives and fillers.
Lastly, EK products in general ​are usually in the form of salts, which is why they are referred to as BHB Salts. The BHB ketones are bound to common salts such as sodium​, calcium, magnesium and potassium​ to improve absorption rate. These salts are also the core electrolytes your body needs to help you avoid feeling mentally drained and physically lousy during the keto-flu transition period.
I wrote this post at about the same time Germany won the World Cup in Rio de Janeiro in 2014. There’s been a lot of moving and shaking in the world of exogenous ketones since then, not to mention soccer. Looking back on my post, I still consider it relevant in terms of what exogenous ketones possibly can (and cannot) do for performance. In this case, to see if exogenous ketone esters provide me a “boost” by allowing me to do the same amount of work while expending less energy (and work at a relatively lower VO2) compared to no supplementation.

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