Over five visits, participants (n = 16) consumed either 4.4 mmol.kg−1 of βHB (2.2 mmol.kg−1 or 395 mg/kg of KE; 1 mole of KE delivered 2 moles of d-βHB equivalents): twice whilst fasted, and twice following a standardized meal, or an isocaloric dextrose drink without a meal. To improve palatability, drinks were diluted to 500 ml with a commercially available, citrus flavored drink containing 65 kCal (5 g of carbohydrate) (Glaceau, UK). The dextrose drink was taste-matched using a bitterness additive (Symrise, Holzminden, Germany). The standard meal consisted of porridge oats (54 g), semi-skimmed milk (360 ml) and banana (120 g), giving 600 kCal per person, with a macronutrient ratio of Carbohydrate: Protein: Fat of 2:1:1.
Ketogenic Diets and Physical Performance – Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

Eating around 20 grams of net carbs a day is as a foolproof way to get you into ketosis a quickly as is humanly possible. However, having 50 grams of total carbs will also get you into ketosis within three days [3]. This amount of carbs is enough to deplete glucose reserves. It's also low enough to prevent fat being used to make glucose and, instead, the body is forced to make ketones.

The classical KD consists of a 4:1 ratio of fat to protein and carbohydrate, with 80–90 % of total calories derived from fat [27]. The macronutrient ratio of the KD induces a metabolic shift towards fatty acid oxidation and hepatic ketogenesis, elevating the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) in the blood. Acetone, generated by decarboxylation of AcAc, has been shown to have anticonvulsant properties [28–32]. Ketone bodies are naturally elevated to serve as alternative metabolic substrates for extra-hepatic tissues during the prolonged reduction of glucose availability, suppression of insulin, and depletion of liver glycogen, such as occurs during starvation, fasting, vigorous exercise, calorie restriction, or the KD. Although the KD has clear therapeutic potential, several factors limit the efficacy and utility of this metabolic therapy for widespread clinical use. Patient compliance to the KD can be low due to the severe dietary restriction - the diet being generally perceived as unpalatable - and intolerance to high-fat ingestion. Maintaining ketosis can be difficult as consumption of even a small quantity of carbohydrates or excess protein can rapidly inhibit ketogenesis [33, 34]. Furthermore, enhanced ketone body production and tissue utilization by the tissues can take several weeks (keto-adaptation), and patients may experience mild hypoglycemic symptoms during this transitional period [35].

So if you really want to jump start ketosis, do what the prehistoric humans did; don’t eat for 3 to 5 days. Keep the water bottle and multivitamins close and go on a strict fast. It might seem extreme and to a degree it is, but starving yourself will put you into ketosis. No ifs, ands, or buts about it. And it will cause you to lapse into a ketogenic state faster than if you tried to do so by manipulating the foods you eat (replacing carbs with fats). Once starvation has caused your body to transition to a ketogenic state, you can begin to introduce your low carb, high fat keto-friendly foods.
Your body uses the energy source that is the easiest to use, in our case this is glucose. Glucose is just a type of sugar. As our body cannot store glucose as such it stores the extra glucose in form of glycogen that is stored in our liver and muscles. To initiate production of ketones in your body as fast as possible you must deplete your body of glycogen reserves. The best way to do this is a simple 24 hours fast. This will deplete your glycogen stores as fast as possible. If you don’t over eat for dinner or you even skip it all together you will already wake up in state of mild ketosis the next morning due to the overnight fast. Here are also described some signs that you are in Ketosis already.
I wrote this post at about the same time Germany won the World Cup in Rio de Janeiro in 2014. There’s been a lot of moving and shaking in the world of exogenous ketones since then, not to mention soccer. Looking back on my post, I still consider it relevant in terms of what exogenous ketones possibly can (and cannot) do for performance. In this case, to see if exogenous ketone esters provide me a “boost” by allowing me to do the same amount of work while expending less energy (and work at a relatively lower VO2) compared to no supplementation.

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