Hello, I’ve tried several different Exogenous Ketone supplements and I believe Perfect Keto may be the best I’ve tried. Thus far I’ve had Keto//OS from Pruvitt, Kegenix, KetoForce, KetoCaNa and Ketond. Out of all these brands both Perfect Keto and Ketond have been the products that hack me into Ketosis quick and for longer periods of time. Perfect Keto is less expensive that Ketones from Pruvitt mainly because Pruvitt and their Network Marketing is all about making money. The flavors of Perfect Keto are much better than Pruvitt.
Miriam, Thank you for the questions. I am going to do my best here to provide you with answers: Q: The manufacture of BHB salts involves ionic bonding of an anion (beta-hydroxybutyrate) with a cation (Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg+). At least one of the exogenous ketone products you listed does in fact contain potassium ions. People taking potassium-sparing drugs need to know this and that raises concerns about leaving it off your chart. A: The table lists the BHB and the mineral content from the BHB salts (no added minerals). Therefore, since potassium BHB is not in any of the… Read more »
So I’ve been primarily on a Keto diet for almost 6 months. During this time, I have fine tuned a lot to get my ketone levels up (Eating more fat and less protein). Most recently, I have used blood measurements for my ketone levels and I fluctuate between .6 and 2.6. The higher readings I get on the days I workout in the morning (about 5 hours before I draw blood and take a reading). I don’t have any problems sticking to the diet. It only seems to get easier. I’ve also incorporated 16 hour fasts which also are becoming easier over time. My priority and motivation for doing a keto diet is first and foremost weight loss. So far I have lost 40 pounds and I need to lose about 20 more. I do however want to improve my performance (running) and strength (I am doing the Stronglifts 5×5 program now).

Some think so because higher ketone levels imply increased fuel for the brain and heart (that prefer ketones), and increased protection against inflammation and oxidation. But are the health benefits coming from the ketones themselves, or are they coming from the state you have to put your body in to actually produce them? And if you're kicking yourself out of ketosis by ingesting ketones would you still get the same benefits?


It’s sometimes the case that a person has been attempting to transition to a state of ketosis, but in spite of their best efforts, they seem stuck in a kind of limbo where they’re eating hardly any carbs, but they don’t seem to be losing weight or experiencing the other benefits of the keto diet. But the science is the science, which means if you’re doing everything right you should be in ketosis. If you’re not, or you seem to be drifting in and out of a keto state, it’s not your body’s fault, it’s your diet.
This fasting process will not only activate autophagy in your cells, it will also increase your ketones much more quickly than if you were just eating a standard ketogenic diet. If you start implementing intermittent fasting and activities (like walking, cycling, or lifting weights) together, you can raise ketone levels and increase autophagy more than you would with intermittent fasting alone. This suggests that intermittent fasting would be a great addition to your life, but it is important to be familiar with the negative symptoms that can arise before you start.
I stumbled onto this trend before it even blew up, I have read just about every peer-review journal of the topic, I have trialed as well as tested different methods and keto products (exogenous ketones, MCT oils, pills, etc), and lastly, I have reported and analyzed my performance to share with you all. It hasn't been an easy task, but I have also seen the fruits of the labor, and the fruit is sweet.
Unless otherwise stated, statistical analysis was conducted using Prism 6™ software. Values, expressed as means ± SEM, were considered significantly different at p < 0.05. Initial tests were undertaken to ensure that normality and sphericity assumptions were not violated. Subsequently, either one or two way repeated measures ANOVA, or Freidman's test with post-hoc Tukey or Dunnet's correction were performed, to compare changing concentrations of substrates, electrolytes, pH, insulin, breath and urinary βHB: both over time and between study interventions. In Study 2, data from each of the two study visits in each condition (fed and fasted) completed by an individual were included in the analysis.

I eat one meal a day during a one-hour window and fast 23 or more hours every day. I want to use your ketones to get back into ketosis faster after that meal. Will that work? I am confused, because say at the end of my hour eating window I drink your ketones, sure there are lots of ketones suddenly in my body but I also have a big meal in my stomach. My body has to digest and use that food energy, so how do exogenous ketones help me in that case?
Hi Rob thanks so much, many people experience inconclusive results from the pee strips, as the ketone concentration in our pee is a measure of ketones not being used by the body. Basically the overflow or unused ketones. As our body becomes more adapted to using ketones, there will be less in our urine. It’s tough to keep the variable constant of how hydrated you are across many pee tests. Don’t be discouraged by pee test results. We have had many times where our blood tests show 1-3mmol/dl BHB but our pee test showed no results. Definitely keep testing (consider using a precision Xtra) and changing the dose to suit your needs. Hope this is helpful!
The reason for testing after one hour was based on Prüvit’s “59-minute test”, which recommends testing ketones 45-60 minutes after taking the supplement (by the way, saying “59 minutes” instead of 60 minutes or 1 hour just sounds like another marketing gimmick to me). Kegenix Prime also promises “ketosis in 60 minutes” on its packaging. We carried out the testing at more or less the same time each day.

Hi. Thanks for the informative article! I have fallen down the exogenous ketone rabbit hole for the last 2 days trying to figure everything out. I am currently on a nutritional ketonic diet but after 8 months, I am finding it difficult to stay on it 100%. I would like to remain on a low-carb diet, but also have a little more flexibility in my food choices. If you take the expense out of the equation, which product would you recommend for someone who wants to use ketosis as a method of weight loss? Thank you so much.

For anyone who wants to get a bit more technical, research by Stubbs and colleagues shows that BHB shuts off lipolysis (fat breakdown). With endogenous ketosis there are many other factors that stimulate lipolysis meaning that a kind of balance is reached and lipolysis stays constant. But with exogenous ketosis those factors stimulating ketosis are not present, so the overall effect of the ingested BHB is to decrease lipolysis.


Patrick Arnold is an organic chemist who is notorious for being the creator of several performance-enhancing steroids. He is arguably one of the strongest influencers on the advancement of sports supplementation. Currently he is focused on developing products under the KetoSports brand, which includes two exogenous ketone products – KetoForce and KetoCaNa.
Blood d-βHB, pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) and electrolytes measured in arterialized blood samples from resting subjects (n = 7) following a ketone ester or salt drink containing 3.2 mmol.kg−1 of βHB. Shaded areas represent the normal range. Values are means ± SEM. (A) Venous blood d-βHB. (B) Arterialized blood pH. (C) Blood bicarbonate. (D) Blood potassium. (E) Blood sodium. (F) Blood chloride. †p < 0.05 difference between KE and KS, *p < 0.05 difference from baseline value.
The “BHB salt” is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate.  In supplements like Pruvit’s Keto OS  these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you consume the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution.  Thus, consuming the product directly and immediately puts more ketones into your blood.
For subjects completing the initial experiment (n = 15), the amount of d-βHB excreted in the urine increased with d-βHB intake, but was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was not different between matched doses of KE vs. KS (Figure ​(Figure1I).1I). There was no change in urine volume produced in different study conditions. Baseline urinary pH (5.7 ± 0.1) was unchanged by KE ingestion (pH 6.4 ± 0.2. p = 0.8 vs. baseline) but was significantly alkalinized by KS consumption (pH 8.5 ± 0.1. p < 0.001 vs. baseline) (Figure ​(Figure1J1J).
An alternative to the ketogenic diet is consumption of drinks containing exogenous dietary ketones, such as ketone esters (KE) and ketone salts (KS). The metabolic effects of KS ingestion have been reported in rats (Ari et al., 2016; Kesl et al., 2016; Caminhotto et al., 2017), in three extremely ill pediatric patients (Plecko et al., 2002; Van Hove et al., 2003; Valayannopoulos et al., 2011) and in cyclists (O'Malley et al., 2017; Rodger et al., 2017). However, the concentrations of blood βHB reached were low (<1 mM) and a high amount of salt, consumed as sodium, potassium and/or calcium βHB, was required to achieve ketosis. Furthermore, dietary KS are often racemic mixtures of the two optical isoforms of βHB, d-βHB, and l-βHB, despite the metabolism of l-βHB being poorly understood (Webber and Edmond, 1977; Scofield et al., 1982; Lincoln et al., 1987; Desrochers et al., 1992). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of KS ingestion in healthy humans at rest have not been reported.

Effects of ketone supplementation on triglycerides and lipoproteins: Ketone supplementation causes little change in triglycerides and lipoproteins over a 4-week study. Graphs show concentrations at 4-weeks of total cholesterol (a), Triglycerides (b), LDL (c), and HDL (d). MCT supplemented rats had signfiicantly reduced concentration of HDL blood levels compared to control (p < 0.001) (b). One-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test, results considered significant if p < 0.05. Error bars represent mean (SD)


The effects of ketone drinks on endogenous insulin secretion are unclear. Whilst the small increase in plasma insulin after KE and KS drinks may have been due to the small quantity of dextrose in the diluent, it has been proposed that ketones could potentiate or even stimulate insulin secretion. Isolated pancreatic islets secreted insulin when stimulated by ketones at glucose concentrations of >5 mM (Biden and Taylor, 1983), and small amounts of insulin are secreted in vivo following exposure to exogenous ketones in animals (Madison et al., 1964; Miles et al., 1981). In response to an intra-venous 10 mM glucose clamp, ketone ester drinks increased glucose uptake and plasma insulin (Holdsworth et al., 2017). The increases in insulin with ketone drinks taken whilst fasted were small compared to the increases seen when the ketone ester drink was consumed with a meal and with consumption of a dextrose drink. Furthermore, the lack of difference in peak plasma insulin between the two latter conditions indicates that nutritional ketosis did not inhibit or increase normal carbohydrate induced insulin production.
I don’t think we even need a drumroll here… Based on my background research into ketone-supplement companies, the survey of Diet Doctor users and the experiment itself, we cannot recommend taking these supplements. I can personally think of many more beneficial ways to invest money in my health, such as buying grass-fed meat and organic vegetables, or even buying a bicycle and riding it outside in the sunshine.
For subjects completing the initial experiment (n = 15), the amount of d-βHB excreted in the urine increased with d-βHB intake, but was <1.5% of the total βHB ingested and was not different between matched doses of KE vs. KS (Figure ​(Figure1I).1I). There was no change in urine volume produced in different study conditions. Baseline urinary pH (5.7 ± 0.1) was unchanged by KE ingestion (pH 6.4 ± 0.2. p = 0.8 vs. baseline) but was significantly alkalinized by KS consumption (pH 8.5 ± 0.1. p < 0.001 vs. baseline) (Figure ​(Figure1J1J).
Our bodies are produce three types of ketone bodies for fuel: beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. Each is used by the body differently. Acetone is the least abundant, produced in much smaller amounts, and is usually exhaled through the lungs rather than being used as fuel.3 Acetoacetate is part of the metabolic pathway whereby humans make and use ketones, but it tends to be found in the blood at lower levels than BHB.
Ketone Esters: Synthetically-made compounds that link an alcohol to a ketone body, which is metabolised in the liver to a ketone. Ketone esters are used primarily in research for testing their efficacy in elevating ketone body levels (below is a generic structure of a BHB ester). Yet, the first commercial Ketone ester drink will be available in 2018 by HVMN. Research esters are reportedly very unpleasant tasting which HVMN hopes to change.
Getting enough sleep not only helps in the production of growth hormones vital for muscle growth, but it plays a particular role as already discussed. If you’re intermittently fasting then sleep is crucial is helping you sustain the fast. 6-10 hours of your day will be dedicated to sleep, helping you to reboot and not think about food during this time. That means less time for you to actually be fasting! Stress is another factor – if we don’t get enough sleep, we’ll tend to feel more stress and agitation throughout the day. Ensuring that we’re well rested plays a huge part in keeping down cortisol levels so that are insulin and blood sugar levels don’t spike.
LDL is the lipoprotein particle that is most often associated with atherosclerosis. LDL particles exist in different sizes: large molecules (Pattern A) or small molecules (Pattern B). Recent studies have investigated the importance of LDL-particle type and size rather than total concentration as being the source for cardiovascular risk [56]. Patients whose LDL particles are predominantly small and dense (Pattern B) have a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is thought that small, dense LDL particles are more able to penetrate the endothelium and cause in damage and inflammation [82–85]. Volek et al. reported that the KD increased the pattern and volume of LDL particles, which is considered to reduce cardiovascular risk [73]. Though we did not show a significant effect on LDL levels for ketone supplements, future chronic feeding studies will investigate the effects of ketone supplementation on lipidomic profile and LDL particle type and size.
Instead of being bound to a mineral (like ketone salts), the ketone molecule (BHB or AcAc) is bound to a ketone precursor (e.g. butanediol or glycerol) via an ester bond. While there aren't as many esters on the market as salts, there is still some variance–especially when looking at the ketone molecule in these products. Before selecting the best one for you, it's important to gather all the necessary information to make your decision.

They’ve got enough science behind them to suggest they do work very well indeed, but watch out for the online ads featuring the raspberry ketone fat burners. Their name is little more than a parlour trick because this is not related in any way to ketones, a ketogenic diet or nutritional ketosis. They are merely the natural substance that gives raspberries their sweet aroma and flavour. Just because they’re marketed at the must-have fat burner, doesn’t mean they work and are one of the most widely spread Internet scams. There aren’t any human studies to back up raspberries claims so exercise a handful of caution when choosing your ketone supplier. Make sure they’re reputable, can be held accountable and are Australian made to set yourself up to become leaner while increasing your stamina.

It's also a smart idea to start slowly with this supplement. We can thank Dave Asprey for the term “disaster pants” which has been used by those who try MCT oil at too high a dose when they first start using it. There is a chance that you can experience the same unpleasant gastrointestinal effect with exogenous ketones if you start with too high a dose, or if you maintain a higher carbohydrate diet while using this supplement. Used in appropriate doses, it gets absorbed through your stomach into your liver, then sent out to the rest of your body.

Over the past couple years, I’ve tried a number of ketone supplements, generally to enhance a longer fast or to offer an edge before one of my Ultimate Frisbee evenings. This Kegenix variety is one I’d recommend. I’ve also used Quest Nutrition MCT oil powder with good results as well, but there are plenty of other solid formulations to choose from.


 Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults. – Glucose is the brain’s principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain’s ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. On separate days, 20 subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment consumed a drink containing emulsified MCTs or placebo. Significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were observed 90 min after treatment (P=0.007) when cognitive tests were administered. beta-OHB elevations were moderated by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (P=0.036). For 4+ subjects, beta-OHB levels continued to rise between the 90 and 120 min blood draws in the treatment condition, while the beta-OHB levels of 4- subjects held constant (P<0.009). On cognitive testing, MCT treatment facilitated performance on the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) for 4- subjects, but not for 4+ subjects (P=0.04). Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02). Additional research is warranted to determine the therapeutic benefits of MCTs for patients with AD and how APOE-4 status may mediate beta-OHB efficacy.
The “BHB salt” is simply a compound that consists of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. In supplements like Pruvit’s Keto OS these individual components are being held together by ionic bonds; however, when you consume the product, it is absorbed into the blood where it dissociates into free Na+, K+, and BHB since it is a water-based solution. Thus, consuming the product directly and immediately puts more ketones into your blood.
Despite the recent growth of the ketone salt market, there is very little published work analyzing the effects of these products on any biomarkers or performance measurements in humans. Several studies have been carried out in rats,6,7 with blood BHB levels being relatively low (<0.5 mM) post-consumption of salt drinks. In humans, ketone salts provided peak D-BHB levels of 1 mM, whereas the same amount of BHB in a ketone ester (BD-BHB) raised blood BHB to 2.8 mM.5
If you do the same calculations as I did above for estimating fat oxidation, you’ll see that EE in this case was approximately 13.92 kcal/min, while fat oxidation was only 67% of this, or 9.28 kcal/min, or 1.03 g/min. So, for this second effort (the test set) my body did about 5% less mechanical work, while oxidizing about 25% less of my own fat. The majority of this difference, I assume, is from the utilization of the exogenous BHB, and not glucose (again, I will address below what I think is happening with glucose levels).

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