Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is naturally ketone body that is produced when free fatty acids are broken down in the liver. The other two types of Ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc) and acetone. Ketones provide pure energy to fuel the human brain and other tissues. The elevation in ketones in your blood have been a rapidly emerging area of research and studies are continuing to show improvements in performance, brown adipose tissue, and several other possible applications.
To be in ketosis, you need to get very specific about the macronutrient ratios hanging off your fork. This means eating 75% fats, 20% protein and 5% carbohydrates. It’ll see you getting 5-10% of your total calories from carbohydrates, which is roughly 25-30g of carbs per day, and diligently keeping this below the 50g threshold creates the ketosis that burns stored fat. Unlike the no-limit-protein option on the table when going low carb, eating more than 0.67-0.81g of protein per pound of bodyweight can hoof you out of ketosis because too much of it can be converted into glucose, blunting the benefits of the ketones. On the plus side, you will have a high fat intake, making your energy levels more balanced so you can train at higher intensities.
As for MCT oil (and oil powders), powder formulations tend to cause less digestive distress (e.g. probiotics), but some folks object to the additional ingredients like sunflower lecithin or soluble corn fiber). Even if you’d like to eventually settle on an oil, I’d recommend starting with a powder to see how you respond and to give your body the chance to adapt over time.
If you truly want to optimize health and performance, magnesium should not be neglected. There is still more research to be done on its potential. Good sources of magnesium include whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, green leafy vegetables, and supplements. However, be careful about taking too much magnesium at one time, or else you might end up running to the bathroom in a hurry.
Measurements taken included whole blood glucose and BHB (every 5 minutes); VO2 and VCO2 (every 15 seconds); HR (continuous); RQ is calculated as the ratio of VO2 and VCO2. In the video of this post I explain what VO2, VCO2, and RQ tell us about energy expenditure and substrate use—very quickly, RQ typically varies between about 0.7 and 1.0—the closer RQ is to 0.7, the more fat is being oxidized; the reverse is true as RQ approaches 1.0
Firstly, in a randomized four-arm cross-over study, blood βHB concentrations were compared following ingestion of equal amounts of βHB as a KE or a KS at two doses by healthy volunteers at rest (Study 1; n = 15). Secondly, in a randomized five-arm cross-over study, inter- and intra-participant repeatability of ketosis was examined following ingestion of identical KE drinks, twice whilst fed and twice whilst fasted. As a control, participants also consumed one isocaloric (1.9 kCal.kg−1) dextrose drink (Study 2; n = 16). Finally, blood d-βHB was measured after equal amounts of KE were given as three drinks (n = 12) or a constant nasogastric (NG) infusion (n = 4) (Study 3; total n = 14) over 9 h.
The famous keto-breath is powerful enough to throw shade on your increasingly ripped rig. The mouth-based ketones are released when your body scalds fat are responsible for the pong. Going into ketosis by changing your diet means your body doesn’t have carbs as a fuel source, so you’re using fats and proteins for energy, which fuels the potency of the fireworks seeping from your grill. The same can happen when taking supplements, but not by the same degree – proving that changing your diet it obviously a more potent fat burning tool. A lot of people also report gastric distress, so you could offend those you’re co-habituating with. What’s more, they can have a slight diuretic effect, which can deplete your magnesium, potassium and sodium stores, so make sure your levels are topped up when you’re out for a extra long exercise stint. Research in Nutrition and Metabolism on animals, found there were no negative side effects, but whether this extends to humans is still up for discussion. Fortunately, you’re more likely benefit from the upsides such as improved endurance, appetite suppression and fat burning.
Whereas ketone esters are 100% D- form, most ketone salts are a 50/50 mix of left and right-handed beta hydroxybutyrate, which is known as a racemic mixture. These beta hydroxybutyrate molecules are linked to a mineral, such sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), or magnesium (Mg). This kind of ketone supplement gets broken down to left and right-handed version of beta hydroxybutyrate along with the mineral.
Yes — you read that correctly — 24 hours of intermittent fasting without any resistance training and these subjects were able to preserve more muscle mass than the subjects that ate fewer calories every day without fasting at all. This finding contradicts our common sense, but when we dig deeper into autophagy we can find the mechanism behind this result.
I’m fasting (5 days fast, 2 days food) in an effort to aggressively lose weight. For the most part, I’m not doing the water & salt-only kind of fast… as I will also drink coffee & bone broth… as well as take Perfect Keto Base. Would it be “gilding the lily” to also add MCT powder to my coffee? I’m in nutritional ketosis… ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 or thereabouts.

Ketone Salts: While the body uses and makes BHB ketones salts naturally, in supplement form ketone salts are synthetically (lab) made compounds that combine sodium (and/or potassium, calcium, or magnesium) with BHB. The salt is used to raise the pH and make things less acidic. Currently, all ketone supplements on the market are made from ketone salts. While they raise ketone levels, most people will only experience mild nutritional ketosis (~0.6-1.0 mmol/L).


How to get into ketosis in 24 hours you ask? Can it be done? Yes, it can happen. But only for people who have already been keto-adapted and may have dropped out of ketosis for a short period of time, like after a cheat day. Those people can follow these steps to get back into ketosis quickly. However, if you are just starting keto you have a lot of work to do before your body will let you get into ketosis.
I wrote this post at about the same time Germany won the World Cup in Rio de Janeiro in 2014. There’s been a lot of moving and shaking in the world of exogenous ketones since then, not to mention soccer. Looking back on my post, I still consider it relevant in terms of what exogenous ketones possibly can (and cannot) do for performance. In this case, to see if exogenous ketone esters provide me a “boost” by allowing me to do the same amount of work while expending less energy (and work at a relatively lower VO2) compared to no supplementation.

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