Effects of ketone supplementation on blood glucose. a, b Blood glucose levels at times 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 8, and 12 h (for 10 dose) post intragastric gavage for ketone supplements tested. a Ketone supplements BMS + MCT and MCT significantly reduced blood glucose levels compared to controls for the duration of the 4-week study. BMS significantly lowered blood glucose only at 8 h/week 1 and 12 h/week 3 (b) KE, maintained at 5 g/kg, significantly reduced blood glucose compared to controls from week 1–4. BD did not significantly affect blood glucose levels at any time point during the 4-week study. Two-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test, results considered significant if p < 0.05. Error bars represent mean (SD)
The year before last I somehow full on Rocked at the keto diet lost 100lb, and was taking adderall. I am transitioning back into it again also back on the adderall, but i seem to have no energy and last time my doc did my blood work i was only 16% hydrated. Obviously it’s a huge problem for me, staying hydrated and trying to lift the fogginess. I am type 2 diabetic and my doctor is on board with me trying all to keep my sugars down YEAH!!! I have never tried any exogenous product. My body seems to not absorb much vitamins. Can anyone make a or any suggestion to me as to how to get this under control?
Improved cognition: Elevated plasma ketone concentrations divert the brain to utilize ketone bodies for synthesis of phospholipids, which drives growth and myelination. Normally, glucose would be the preferred substrate, which is much less efficient.14 BHB seems to act as a signal for neuronal pathways. These enhance synaptic plasticity, cognition and neuronal stress resistance. 15 In rat studies, ingestion of a ketone ester for 5 days improved their spatial learning and memory. 16.
Ketone Esters: Synthetically-made compounds that link an alcohol to a ketone body, which is metabolised in the liver to a ketone. Ketone esters are used primarily in research for testing their efficacy in elevating ketone body levels (below is a generic structure of a BHB ester). Yet, the first commercial Ketone ester drink will be available in 2018 by HVMN. Research esters are reportedly very unpleasant tasting which HVMN hopes to change.

At day 29 of the study, animals were euthanized and brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen and heart were harvested and weighed. Organ weights were normalized to body weight. Ketone supplementation did not significantly change brain, lung, kidney, or heart weights compared to controls (Fig. 5a, b, d, f). MCT supplemented animals had significantly larger livers compared to their body weight (p < 0.05) (Fig. 5c). Ketone supplements BMS + MCT, MCT and BD caused a significant reduction in spleen size (BMS + MCT p < 0.05, MCT p < 0.001, BD p < 0.05) (Fig. 5e). Rats administered KE gained significantly less weight over the entire study compared to controls. BMS + MCT, BMS, and BD supplemented rats gained significantly less weight than controls during weeks 2 – 4, and MCT animals gained less weight than controls at weeks 3 – 4 (Fig. 6). Increased gastric motility (increased bowel evacuation and changes to fecal consistency) was visually observed in rats supplemented with 10 g/kg MCT, most notably at the 8 and 12-h time points. All animals remained in healthy weight range for their age even though the rate of weight gain changed with ketone supplementation [53–54]. Food intake was not measured in this study. However, there was not a significant change in basal blood glucose or basal blood ketone levels over the 4 week study in any of the rats supplemented with ketones (Fig. 7).

88. Yost T, Erskine J, Gregg T, Podlecki D, Brass E, Eckel R. Dietary substitution of medium chain triglycerides in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in an ambulatory setting: impact on glycemic control and insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(6):615–22. doi: 10.1080/07315724.1994.10718457. [PubMed] [CrossRef]


An alternative to the ketogenic diet is consumption of drinks containing exogenous dietary ketones, such as ketone esters (KE) and ketone salts (KS). The metabolic effects of KS ingestion have been reported in rats (Ari et al., 2016; Kesl et al., 2016; Caminhotto et al., 2017), in three extremely ill pediatric patients (Plecko et al., 2002; Van Hove et al., 2003; Valayannopoulos et al., 2011) and in cyclists (O'Malley et al., 2017; Rodger et al., 2017). However, the concentrations of blood βHB reached were low (<1 mM) and a high amount of salt, consumed as sodium, potassium and/or calcium βHB, was required to achieve ketosis. Furthermore, dietary KS are often racemic mixtures of the two optical isoforms of βHB, d-βHB, and l-βHB, despite the metabolism of l-βHB being poorly understood (Webber and Edmond, 1977; Scofield et al., 1982; Lincoln et al., 1987; Desrochers et al., 1992). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of KS ingestion in healthy humans at rest have not been reported.

If you have tried other ketone supplements that haven’t worked as promised or tasted terrible. Have no fear. This stuff is what a ketone supplement should be. It’s incredible what customers tell me. How it’s given them more energy, focus, drive. Helped them lose weight and suppress their appetite. Help them train harder at the gym and all kinds of great stories.*
Taking MCT oil (medium chain triglyceride) or coconut oil (contains 60% MCT) can help boost ketone production. This is because your body absorbs MCT very quickly as it bypasses the gallbladder and into the liver to be processed into ketone bodies. Make sure you’re getting unprocessed versions of coconut oil that is labelled as ‘organic’ or ‘extra virgin’. This, along with grass-fed butter, is what I add into my ‘bulletproof’ coffees.
SHEER Ketones BHB Salts made this top 5 list because they do a good job of avoiding all the common unwanted additives and fillers in BHB salts. It’s good to see we have options to choose from when trying to avoid these types of ingredients. SHEER Ketones’ other ingredients include citric acid, fruit and vegetable juice powder for the color, and “natural flavors.” It uses a stevia leaf extract (Rebaudioside A).
We sampled each of the 3 flavors and also mixed in the available Ketōstax and this supplement tasted better than any other we had tried. Ketōnd costs $79.95 for 30 servings which is about $2.67 per serving – which is less than half the price of the leading competitor. Ketōnd’s label and ingredients are 100% transparent, so they disclose everything that is in the supplement – which is only ketones. What we really liked about Ketōnd is that it isn’t part of some Multi Level Marketing company so there are no obligations.
At the same time, research suggests that getting as much of your calcium from your diet, rather than supplements is a good idea. For instance, there is some evidence that the calcium intake from food is better for bone mineral density than the same calcium intake from supplements[17]. Foods that are high in calcium include dairy, leafy green vegetables, fish with edible bones, tofu made with calcium sulfate, and calcium-fortified foods and beverages.
It's a common misconception among those who are trying to lose weight that fat is dangerous, but this is not the case at all. You will need to rely on healthy sources of fat to reach ketosis, and this can be achieved by choosing the right type of food. Go with those that contain butter, olive oil, coconut oil and avocado oil, among others. Opt for oils that are not heavily processed so you can get the most benefits out of them.
For example, the popular Raspberry Ketones supplement is far different than what we have been discussing in this article. Raspberry ketones are unrelated to the ketones that are produced in the body and are not the same as the ketone salts that have been covered above. There are some limited studies that indicate raspberry ketones may be helpful for weight loss, but they are inconsistent. Raspberry ketones are the molecules that give raspberries their scent and flavor, and in some cases, aren’t even derived from raspberries at all.

In addition to the Weir coefficients being potentially off (which impacts EE), the RQ interpretation may be incorrect in the presence of endogenous or exogenous ketones. As a result, the estimation of fat and glucose oxidation may be off (though it’s directionally correct). That said, the current interpretation seems quite plausible—greater fat oxidation when I had to make my ketones; less when I got my ketones for “free.”
There are numerous benefits that come with living a ketogenic lifestyle. The ketones give your body the much-needed energy and protect you from being affected by different mental conditions such as epilepsy and the Alzheimer’s disease. There is no doubt that ketogenic lifestyle is the surest way of living a healthy and disease-free life. With the tips above, you can get into ketosis in 24 hours effortlessly.
Considering both the broad therapeutic potential and limitations of the KD, an oral exogenous ketone supplement capable of inducing sustained therapeutic ketosis without the need for dietary restriction would serve as a practical alternative. Several natural and synthetic ketone supplements capable of inducing nutritional ketosis have been identified. Desrochers et al. elevated ketone bodies in the blood of pigs (>0.5 mM) using exogenous ketone supplements: (R, S)-1,3 butanediol and (R, S)-1,3 butanediol-acetoacetate monoesters and diester [48]. In 2012, Clarke et al. demonstrated the safety and efficacy of chronic oral administration of a ketone monoester of R-βHB in rats and humans [49, 50]. Subjects maintained elevated blood ketones without dietary restriction and experienced little to no adverse side effects, demonstrating the potential to circumvent the restrictive diet typically needed to achieve therapeutic ketosis. We hypothesized that exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained hyperketonemia (>0.5 mM) without dietary restriction and without negatively influencing metabolic biomarkers, such as blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. Thus, we measured these biomarkers during a 28-day administration of the following ketone supplements in rats: naturally-derived ketogenic supplements included medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT), sodium/potassium -βHB mineral salt (BMS), and sodium/potassium -βHB mineral salt + medium chain triglyceride oil 1:1 mixture (BMS + MCT) and synthetically produced ketogenic supplements included 1, 3-butanediol (BD), 1, 3-butanediol acetoacetate diester/ ketone ester (KE).

If you read about ketosis in magazine or heard about it in a podcast and wanted to jump on the bandwagon, then I think you should avoid it. Remember, it is a strict diet, and the potential health downsides may not be worth the upsides, unless you are working with a medical professional and or you are tracking your labs to see what’s going on with your health (thyroid).


If Prüvit’s Keto OS-Max is “not a weight loss supplement” as stated in their disclaimer, why is the official website full of success stories of people who claim to have lost huge amounts of weight from taking the supplements? Ketōnd also feature a number of weight loss success stories on their site. I will get to why there is a problem with weight loss claims later on.
Here we investigated the effects of KE and KS consumption on blood βHB and metabolite concentrations. As we found that KE ingestion delivered a >50% higher plasma concentrations of d-βHB alone, we subsequently determined the reliability and repeatability of ketosis following KE consumption and the effects of concomitant meal ingestion on blood ketone and substrate kinetics. Finally, we determined whether nasogastric infusion could be used for KE administration, given that some patients require feeding in this manner.
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It’s hard to say. Achieving a natural state of ketosis (as in, by eating a ketogenic diet) is thought to be beneficial in the short-term. But experts don’t know the long-term effects, Palumbo says. And some suspect that it could lead to problems like kidney damage or an increased risk for heart disease (and day-to-day keto diet side effects are, at this point, well-documented). Assuming that ketone supplements do work identically to natural ketones, taking them long-term could have similar health effects.
Most people know that you can lose weight by consuming fewer carbs and a lot more protein. However, it's very important that you watch your protein intake carefully if you want to achieve ketosis quickly. There needs to be a balance in the amount of protein you are consuming, since too much of it is not going to be beneficial for you. What you need to remember is that this process is all about getting the right balance of fats, proteins, magnesium, salts, etc., to get your body into ketosis faster.
In terms of getting back into Ketosis, Keto//OS would most likely be a better choice (and a change back to a low-carb diet, of course) because it not only has MCTs, but also provides beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is the product that comes from your liver after it synthesizes acetoacetate. However, since this product also has caffeine (great for workouts), you might want to go with the decaf if you’re strictly looking for a ketosis jumpstart.
Exogenous ketones provide the body with another fuel to employ. Think about it like an electric car that runs on both gas and electricity: by consuming ketones along with carbohydrates, the body will preferentially burn the ketones first, saving the carbohydrates for later. Exogenous ketones allow us to enter a metabolic state that wouldn't occur naturally: the state of having full carbohydrate stores, as well as elevated ketones in the blood. This could be advantageous to athletes looking to boost their physical performance. 

An alternative to the ketogenic diet is consumption of drinks containing exogenous dietary ketones, such as ketone esters (KE) and ketone salts (KS). The metabolic effects of KS ingestion have been reported in rats (Ari et al., 2016; Kesl et al., 2016; Caminhotto et al., 2017), in three extremely ill pediatric patients (Plecko et al., 2002; Van Hove et al., 2003; Valayannopoulos et al., 2011) and in cyclists (O'Malley et al., 2017; Rodger et al., 2017). However, the concentrations of blood βHB reached were low (<1 mM) and a high amount of salt, consumed as sodium, potassium and/or calcium βHB, was required to achieve ketosis. Furthermore, dietary KS are often racemic mixtures of the two optical isoforms of βHB, d-βHB, and l-βHB, despite the metabolism of l-βHB being poorly understood (Webber and Edmond, 1977; Scofield et al., 1982; Lincoln et al., 1987; Desrochers et al., 1992). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of KS ingestion in healthy humans at rest have not been reported.


Intermittent fasting will significantly help the body transition into ketosis as limiting your consumption of food for that many hours will help deplete the system of any excess glucose. It’s a shock to the system and research has shown that daily fasting can have other profound effects aside from weight control such as autophagy, lowering risks of heart disease and diabetes, as well as an improvement in cognitive function. So if you’re still wondering how to get into ketosis in 24 hours, then fasting will surely kick things into gear!


There are many top-rated exogenous ketone supplements, which is a great resource to help get your body to adapt faster and produce at a high-performance level, but you need to be careful how they can effect you and your energy levels and your general mood each day, so it’s important to check with your local physician and be safe about it. Remember that when you switch over to this diet, you must maintain high sodium levels during the process. It is recommended to add more 'keto salt' to your daily intake, starting off gradually and increasing it to as much as 500g a day. You need to add salt and electrolytes to your routine, because a person can lose levels through their urine, which causes your body to become more dehydrated and can leave you feeling a little sick and weak if you don't have the balance properly set up. Most exogenous ketone supplements we found have quite a bit of sodium in their ingredients, which helps you reach the level of salt intake you need each day. It is important to understand how this whole process works before even thinking about tackling it yourself. This is why you should consult with a professional to seek out advice and address any concerns that you may have before getting started.
Intermittent fasting involves merely changing your eating cycle whereby you prolong the period in which you will have your first meal. This diet plan helps to create a smaller eating window. In doing so, it means that you will consume less amount of calories. In addition to depriving the body some calories, intermittent fasting forces the body to begin burning fats. It does so to compensate for the current deficiency.

The liver is always producing ketones to some small degree and they are always present in the bloodstream. Under normal dietary conditions, ketone concentrations are simply too low to be of any significant benefit. A ketogenic diet and exogenous ketone supplements will increase the amount of ketone in your body. The idea that  ketones are “toxic” is ridiculous. Ketones are a normal physiological substance that play many important roles in the human body.
I carried out a survey among Diet Doctor users as background research to the experiment (a big thank you to the 638 people who responded!). In the survey, 28% of the respondents reported that they do take ketone supplements. The top four benefits that these respondents reported experiencing were increased energy, improved focus/cognition, reduced hunger and weight loss.
It is important to define what it means to be “in ketosis”. If being “in ketosis” means having ketones in your blood, then of course ketone supplements get you into ketosis. But that is different from being in an endogenous ketogenic, fat-burning state as a result of following a ketogenic diet. Getting this distinction right will go a long way towards stopping ketone salts companies from using misleading marketing about the issue. We need to reach a consensus about what being “in ketosis” means and then force companies to use that definition.
Those new to keto should be testing to see if their bodies are in ketosis, regardless of method. Testing, in general, is the most objective way to know if you’re in ketosis. There can be some subjective benefits of ketosis: appetite suppression, fat loss, low blood sugar, improvement in mental cognition and focus. But before recognizing these subjective benefits, it’s important to track and measure the level of ketones in the blood to ensure ketosis on a physical level.
As ketone drinks can deliver nutritional ketosis without fasting, we investigated the effect of food on KE uptake and metabolism. It is well documented that food in the gut can slow, or prevent, the uptake of small hydrophilic hydrocarbons, such as βHB (Melander, 1978; Toothaker and Welling, 1980; Horowitz et al., 1989; Fraser et al., 1995), so decreased gut βHB uptake is probably the cause of lower blood βHB following the meal. Despite higher blood βHB concentrations in the fasted state, the meal did not alter plasma AcAc. This suggests that the rate of conversion of βHB to AcAc may not match the rate of appearance of βHB following KE consumption. Alternatively, meal-induced changes in the hepatic ratio of NAD+:NADH may have altered the conversion of βHB to AcAc (Himwich et al., 1937; Desrochers et al., 1992).

Importantly, at Diet Doctor we do not think you need to spend any extra money at all in order to revolutionize your health. You can achieve radiant health just by enjoying authentic food that is naturally low in carbohydrates, getting plenty of sleep and some exercise (going for a walk is free) and reducing stress. A lot of you who answered the survey made exactly these points in your explanations of reasons for not taking the supplements. I whole-heartedly agree.
Miriam, Thank you for the questions. I am going to do my best here to provide you with answers: Q: The manufacture of BHB salts involves ionic bonding of an anion (beta-hydroxybutyrate) with a cation (Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg+). At least one of the exogenous ketone products you listed does in fact contain potassium ions. People taking potassium-sparing drugs need to know this and that raises concerns about leaving it off your chart. A: The table lists the BHB and the mineral content from the BHB salts (no added minerals). Therefore, since potassium BHB is not in any of the… Read more »
Great question. So if you are already in nutritional ketosis from your diet, exogenous ketones would still help raise ketone (energy) levels when you want that (maybe for focus at work or energy at the gym. They also help get you back into ketosis after cheat meals and skip the “keto flu” which is the period when your body is using up stored glycogen.
Another important difference between endogenous and exogenous BOHB is that most synthetic BOHB used in dietary supplements is a mixture of the two ‘D’ and ‘L’ isomers, whereas endogenously produced BOHB consists of just the D-isomer. Metabolically, the two isomers are very different, and current published information indicates that most of the energy and signaling benefits of BOHB derive from the D-form. This is potentially problematic because the L-isomers are not metabolized via the same chemical pathways as the D-forms (Lincoln 1987, Stubbs 2017), and it remains unclear whether humans can convert the L-form to the D-form.

Exercise or performing an extensive workout during the day is a perfect way to burn all those glycogen reserves in your body. Performing a HIIT or High Intensity Interval Training is a perfect type of exercise to do this. So, the next morning when you are awake, get set on an intense exercise session (remember, in the morning, not the afternoon). This will keep the cortisol level lowered during the evening when you wish to have some rest.
Hi- Thank you for this super helpful post. I’m new to Keto and supplementing Keytones. I just got the Julian Bakery Keytones and am curious about how to take them as there are no instructions on the packaging. Indeed the website has a diet plan to follow with the keytones but I am very suspicious of it because it is 0 fat which I believe is not healthy for brain or body and given that I have soft tissue and joint issues, I try to eat enough fat daily. I want to lose weight and I crossfit 5 days per week. So how do I best start with using the keytone supplements? I took a scoop full yesterday when they arrived (in the early afternoon) but hadn’t yet eaten and I think that was a mistake because I had immediate diarrhea which lasted a few hours, even after eating.

Concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerol, glucose, and insulin following equimolar ketone ester and ketone salt drinks, at two amounts, in subjects (n = 15) at rest. Values are means ± SEM. (A) Plasma FFA. (B) Plasma TG. (C) Plasma glucose. (D) Plasma insulin at baseline and after 30 and 60 min. EH, ketone ester high; EL, ketone ester low; SH, ketone salt high; SL, ketone salt low. *p < 0.05 difference from baseline value.
Ketone Salts: While the body uses and makes BHB ketones salts naturally, in supplement form ketone salts are synthetically (lab) made compounds that combine sodium (and/or potassium, calcium, or magnesium) with BHB. The salt is used to raise the pH and make things less acidic. Currently, all ketone supplements on the market are made from ketone salts. While they raise ketone levels, most people will only experience mild nutritional ketosis (~0.6-1.0 mmol/L).
Of course, there may be some people who choose to take these supplements because they genuinely do feel they benefit from them. This is of course your choice and this article in no way aims to shame or criticize anybody. However, I do think that, for most people, eating a low-carb diet based on real foods is a lot more likely to be associated with the benefits that the supplements claim to provide than the supplements themselves.
A small side effect for some people is “ketosis breath”. Many people on a ketogenic diet have experienced this temporary phenomenon, and those taking exogenous ketones can experience it as well. The smell of your breath when you are early in the ketogenic diet can have a hint of acetone to it, and it might be mildly unpleasant, but it’s also harmless. Most gum is pretty low in carbohydrates and is a great option while your keto breath fades.
After a minimal amount of internet "research," I decided to try my first exogenous ketones. I have used the ketogenic diet off and on for at 15 years and my body is pretty efficient at fat adapting. (Usually by the end of 2 strict days, I am in ketosis, but not without symptoms and intense cravings.) I can consistently fast from carbs for 20 - 24 hours and do this consistently. However, around hour 20, my mind begins to negotiate that intermittent fasting is advantageous too and that I can afford to have some carbs once a day. Hence the yo-yo effect.

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