The other potentially important distinction between nutritional ketosis and chemically-induced ketosis is the potential metabolic role played by liver AcAc production and redox status. Although the ratio of BOHB to AcAc in venous blood is typically 80% to 20%, classic studies by Cahill (1975) have observed important hepatic vein and peripheral arterio-venous gradients for this ratio in keto-adapted patients. What these observations imply is that the liver produces a higher proportion of AcAc than is found in the peripheral blood, and that this is due to uptake of AcAc in peripheral cells (principally muscle) with re-release as BOHB. In the process, the reduction of AcAc to BOHB produces NAD+, which is beneficial to mitochondrial redox state and mitochondrial function (Verdin 2015, Newman 2017).
Response inhibition is the ability to suppress inappropriate responses that interfere with goal-directed actions. Two cards are shown, one above the other, each containing the name of a color in a certain color. The goal is to rapidly indicate if the meaning of the color on top (i.e. “yellow”) matches the color of the color on the bottom (i.e., card says “red” but is colored yellow).
There is also evidence that individuals who adhere to a low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet may require higher sodium intakes. Due to their low carbohydrate contents, these diets reduce insulin levels. Since one of insulin’s roles is to decrease the excretion of sodium in the urine[7], low-carbohydrate and ketogenic dieters excrete more sodium than normal, and are encouraged to salt their meals to increase their sodium intake.
Geek note: Technically speaking, beta hydroxybutyrate is NOT a legitimate ketone body. Ketone bodies, or ketones are technically molecules with carbonyl carbons which are bonded to two additional carbon atoms. One carbon has four available bonds. When that carbon is double bonded to oxygen and also has two single bonds to carbon, we have a ketone body. If you have a carbon atom that is double bonded to an oxygen (carbonyl group), which is also bound to an -OH group instead of two different carbon atoms, that would be a carboxylic acid, but that really doesn’t matter in this case. For all intents and purposes of the ketogenic diet, betahydroxybutyrate should be considered one of the three ketone bodies and a “ketone” nonetheless. Your body uses BHB pimarily for energy in the state of ketosis, so it’s a ketone, okay?
One other thing I must point out is also that we are talking about being in ketosis and not being fully keto adapted. You enter ketosis when your body starts producing ketones above a specified level, being fully keto adapted means that your body is full adapted to  use fat as your primary energy source and that the production of certain enzymes in your body is fully adapted. This doesn’t happen in one day and it takes about 1 month on average to be fully keto adapted. But we are not looking for this as we just want to end the most unpleasant period and to start losing weight.
Intermittent fasting will significantly help the body transition into ketosis as limiting your consumption of food for that many hours will help deplete the system of any excess glucose. It’s a shock to the system and research has shown that daily fasting can have other profound effects aside from weight control such as autophagy, lowering risks of heart disease and diabetes, as well as an improvement in cognitive function. So if you’re still wondering how to get into ketosis in 24 hours, then fasting will surely kick things into gear!
Alright, first of all, I tried every combination available for this product. I really loved the idea of adding it to my morning iced coffee with MCT, 1 tbs of heavy cream and stevia. To be honest, my morning coffee is one of my favorite things throughout my day and I was very dissppointed when it didn’t taste *exactly* like an iced mocha. I found it to be very bitter and tough to finish. Not to mention it was ruining my love for my morning coffee time.
While we know that both MCT Oil Powders and BHB salts are proven supplements to increases ketosis, the winner of a top 5 exogenous ketones list I think should be a true direct form of exogenous ketones – one of the BHB salts. Perfect Keto’s BASE takes the win here. The edge ranking factor is its flavor. With stevia-based flavors such as chocolate sea salt, and the fact that it uses zero additives and actually tastes good, this BHB salt is going to have to take the W. They’re the only 100% coconut MCTs that don’t utilize the goMCT™ form.. this is neither a pro or con. And while it doesn’t have the best bang for your buck compared to the other BHB salts on this list, it’s the most proven as far as happy customer track record and consistent high-quality keto supplements.

There are numerous benefits that come with living a ketogenic lifestyle. The ketones give your body the much-needed energy and protect you from being affected by different mental conditions such as epilepsy and the Alzheimer’s disease. There is no doubt that ketogenic lifestyle is the surest way of living a healthy and disease-free life. With the tips above, you can get into ketosis in 24 hours effortlessly.
Do I still follow a ketogenic diet? Not anymore. I was strict keto for 12 weeks – enough time to experiment and learn about it. I did enjoy parts (lots of fat!) but I don’t see it as a sustainable way of eating, nor did I benefit from it health or sports performance wise (more on this in an upcoming article). But, I was following a strict keto diet – sans carbs. I think if I were to follow a ketogenic diet AND incorporate a regular carb refeed then the results may be different.
Because they’re so expensive, you want to make sure you pick a good one. Griffin and Langer say to ignore the companies that make these supplements sound too good to be true. Just like with any supplement, Griffin says it’s important to look at what’s in it. Beware of products with lots of fillers and instead go for one with a short, straightforward list of ingredients (Griffin likes the options from KetoSports).
Another important difference between endogenous and exogenous BOHB is that most synthetic BOHB used in dietary supplements is a mixture of the two ‘D’ and ‘L’ isomers, whereas endogenously produced BOHB consists of just the D-isomer. Metabolically, the two isomers are very different, and current published information indicates that most of the energy and signaling benefits of BOHB derive from the D-form. This is potentially problematic because the L-isomers are not metabolized via the same chemical pathways as the D-forms (Lincoln 1987, Stubbs 2017), and it remains unclear whether humans can convert the L-form to the D-form.
Why is this desirable? Think about energy production in your body much like macro energy consumption on a planetary level. Coal is gross and dirty and messes tons of different things up. You need to continue to burn it to get energy. Solar power is free, clean and pretty much limitless. This is pretty much the same story when you are burning carbs (coal) versus fats (solar) for energy.
Many of us have heard the saying, “Don’t blame the butter for what the bread did.”  Similarly, don’t blame the sodium for what the fries did.  Sodium has been shown to help maintain fluid balance, normal muscle and nerve function, and blood pressure and volume[1]. The movement of sodium ions and other electrolytes across cell membranes helps to facilitate muscle contraction and nerve impulses. Electrolytes also help to maintain fluid balance across intracellular and extracellular spaces and blood volume.
Ketosis supplements made in poor quality have proven to lead to side-effects such as constipation and increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in men. Women may also experience amenorrhea or other disruptions to the menstrual cycle. This is why it is essential to know what combination of compounds you are consuming while you are on this very strict diet. The wrong balance can mess with you in the long term and won't give you the results that you are looking for.
Let’s briefly discuss some organic chemistry. Two molecules that are “the same” but mirror images of each other (like your hands) are known as enantiomers, a type of spatial isomer. Beta hydroxybutyrate comes in two forms, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (“right-handed”) and L-β-hydroxybutyrate (“left-handed”). D-β-hydroxybutyrate is the form that is naturally produced in the body and is most bioavailable when taken exogenously.
Also, this experiement should be of interest. Two men followed a ‘traditional Eskimo’ diet for 1 year. After the year eating a low carb high fat diet, it was found that the men had a diminished tolerance to carbohydrates, something that did not occur in Eskimos eating the same diet. It took the mean nearly a month of eating a ‘normal diet’ before their glucose tolerance returned to baseline. 
88. Yost T, Erskine J, Gregg T, Podlecki D, Brass E, Eckel R. Dietary substitution of medium chain triglycerides in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in an ambulatory setting: impact on glycemic control and insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(6):615–22. doi: 10.1080/07315724.1994.10718457. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
Ketosis supplements made in poor quality have proven to lead to side-effects such as constipation and increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in men. Women may also experience amenorrhea or other disruptions to the menstrual cycle. This is why it is essential to know what combination of compounds you are consuming while you are on this very strict diet. The wrong balance can mess with you in the long term and won't give you the results that you are looking for.
Intermittent fasting is using the same reasoning – instead of using the fats we are eating to gain energy, we are using our stored fat. That being said, you might think it’s great – you can just fast and lose more weight. You have to take into account that later on, you will need to eat extra fat in order to hit your daily macros (the most important thing). If you’re overeating on fats here, you will store the excess.

So by taking in the perfect keto base, which are the exogenous ketones (BHB). This will easily put my body into ketosis rather than having to do the ketosis diet? I cant make up my mind on whether to buy the ketone powder and/or the MCT oil powder. What is the benefit of the MCT oil powder? When i read about it on the perfectketo website, it sounds like it does the same job as the perfect keto base. I’m also curious about the bone broths others sell for ketose related stuff. Is it very benedficial even when it has about 600mg of sodium in it?
I started this website because it was hard to find trustworthy, evidence-based information about the ketogenic diet. Information that was published and peer reviewed by respected scientific journals. After years of research, I'm sure you'll achieve great results in a healthy way following my advice. I do my best to translate scientific research jargon into plain English. Remember, it's always a good idea to consult a doctor before starting a new diet!
To enter ketosis, up to 80%of your daily calories should come from fat. To put this into a frame of reference, if you eat 2,000 calories a day, 1,600 of those calories should come from fat sources. This comes out to roughly 144-170 grams of fat. Both quantity and quality are equally important, so consume fats from high-quality sources, like omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
Proponents like Heverly say that taking exogenous ketones can transform your body—and your life. (Her before-and-after shots below were taken just 10 days apart.) “Within 10 days, my body had this shift. My midsection wasn’t as bloated or fluffy. And I don’t have that cellulite on my legs now,” she says. Heverly also credits Prüvit with giving her a much-needed energy boost and improved mental clarity.
As I mentioned before, this was by no means a scientific experiment carried out under lab conditions, and this means we can only draw tentative conclusions from any of the data. Nonetheless, carrying out the testing in the way described above should give most people a good idea of how well the ketone supplements show the noticeable benefits they are marketed to have and provide a clear enough basis for a decision on whether or not to buy them.

It's also a smart idea to start slowly with this supplement. We can thank Dave Asprey for the term “disaster pants” which has been used by those who try MCT oil at too high a dose when they first start using it. There is a chance that you can experience the same unpleasant gastrointestinal effect with exogenous ketones if you start with too high a dose, or if you maintain a higher carbohydrate diet while using this supplement. Used in appropriate doses, it gets absorbed through your stomach into your liver, then sent out to the rest of your body.
There are numerous benefits that come with living a ketogenic lifestyle. The ketones give your body the much-needed energy and protect you from being affected by different mental conditions such as epilepsy and the Alzheimer’s disease. There is no doubt that ketogenic lifestyle is the surest way of living a healthy and disease-free life. With the tips above, you can get into ketosis in 24 hours effortlessly.
Ketone supplementation did not affect the size of the brain, lungs, kidneys or heart of rats. As previously mentioned, the rats were still growing during the experimental time frame; therefore, organ weights were normalized to body weight to determine if organ weight changed independently to growth. There could be several reasons why ketones influenced liver and spleen weight. The ratio of liver to body weight was significantly higher in the MCT supplemented animals (Fig. 5). MCTs are readily absorbed in the intestinal lumen and transported directly to the liver via hepatic portal circulation. When given a large bolus, such as in this study, the amount of MCTs in the liver will likely exceed the β-oxidation rate, causing the MCTs to be deposited in the liver as fat droplets [94]. The accumulated MCT droplets in the liver could explain the higher liver weight to body weight percentage observed with MCT supplemented rats. Future toxicology and histological studies will be needed to determine the cause of the observed hepatomegaly. It should be emphasized that the dose in this study is not optimized in humans. We speculate that an optimized human dose would be lower and may not cause hepatomegaly or potential fat accumulation. Nutritional ketosis achieved with the KD has been shown to decrease inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, I-CAM, and PAI-1 [8, 46], which may account for the observed decrease in spleen weight. As previously mentioned, Veech and colleagues demonstrated that exogenous supplementation of 5 mM βHB resulted in a 28 % increase in hydraulic work in the working perfused rat heart and a significant decrease in oxygen consumption [28, 41, 42]. Ketone bodies have been shown to increase cerebral blood flow and perfusion [95]. Also, ketone bodies have been shown to increase ATP synthesis and enhance the efficiency of ATP production [14, 28, 40]. It is possible that sustained ketosis results in enhanced cardiac efficiency and O2 consumption. Even though the size of the heart did not change for any of the ketone supplements, further analysis of tissues harvested from the ketone-supplemented rats will be needed to determine any morphological changes and to understand changes in organ size. It should be noted that the Harlan standard rodent chow 2018 is nutritionally complete and formulated with high-quality ingredients to optimize gestation, lactation, growth, and overall health of the animals. The same cannot be said for the standard American diet (SAD). Therefore, we plan to investigate the effects of ketone supplements administered with the SAD to determine if similar effects will be seen when the micronutrient deficiencies and macronutrient profile mimics what most Americans consume.
If the claims about the benefits of exogenous ketones are accurate and true, then it’s fantastic news for people who are looking to enhance their keto lifestyle and who have the money to spend. But two of our core values are trustworthiness and goodness, and it is important to us to test assumptions made by marketing claims and help make sure that people are getting what they are told they are getting when they spend money on a product.
MCT oil has recently been used to induce nutritional ketosis although it produces dose-dependent gastrointestinal (GI) side effects in humans that limit the potential for its use to significantly elevate ketones (>0.5 mM). Despite these limitations, Azzam and colleagues published a case report in which a 43-year-old-man had a significant decrease in seizure frequency after supplementing his diet with 4 tablespoons of MCT oil twice daily [96]. An attempt to increase his dosage to 5 tablespoons twice daily was halted by severe GI intolerance. Henderson et al. observed that 20 % of patients reported GI side effects with a 20 g dose of ketogenic agent AC-1202 in a double blind trial in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s patients [24]. We visually observed similar gastrointestinal side effects (loose stools) in the rats treated with MCT oil in our study. Rats were closely monitored to avoid dehydration, and gastric motility returned to normal between 12–24 h. Interestingly, the BMS + MCT supplement elevated βHB similarly to MCT oil alone, without causing the adverse gastrointestinal effects seen in MCT-supplemented rats. However, this could be due to the fact in a 10 g/kg dose of BMS + MCT, only 5 g/kg is MCT alone, which is less than the 10 g/kg dose that elicits the GI side effects. This suggests that this novel combination may provide a more useful therapeutic option than MCT oil alone, which is limited in its ability to elevate ketones in humans.

Increased calcium levels in the bloodstream may contribute to the hardening of arteries (atherosclerosis), which in turn can lead to a heart attack.  Calcium from supplements enters the bloodstream in one bolus, whereas we usually tend to get calcium from foods in small doses from the breakdown process. This might explain why calcium from food doesn’t create the same risk that is introduced by calcium supplements. At first glance, it seems to be the case that high calcium intake –at least from supplements–may not be ideal.
I stumbled onto this trend before it even blew up, I have read just about every peer-review journal of the topic, I have trialed as well as tested different methods and keto products (exogenous ketones, MCT oils, pills, etc), and lastly, I have reported and analyzed my performance to share with you all. It hasn't been an easy task, but I have also seen the fruits of the labor, and the fruit is sweet.
Hi.. I’ve recently started drinking Keto OS Max and have lost about 20 pounds in the past 4 weeks without strictly sticking to the keto diet and have not exercised once. The only issue I have with Keto OS is the price really. I am wondering how the other BHB/MCT products like Ketond and PerfectKeto compare to Keto OS and what product on the market comes closest to the Keto OS recipes beneficial ingredients. TIA
Follow our simple tips to get into ketosis and speed up the process. Our tips are scientifically-proven to work and are completely safe for everyone. If you need more guidance to achieve ketosis safely and effectively, enroll in our free Ketocademy course. The course will teach you everything there is to know about entering ketosis in less than 3 hours. Try it out today!
If you are not on a vigorous exercise plan, I wouldn't go more than about a scoop a day (if you are a 30min/day, low carb person like me) because some of the research available says that if you get into ketosis using diet only and supplement with extra ketones, you may experience a slower rate of weight loss since you are getting your ketones from a supplement rather than the body transforming fat to ketones. As I progress, I will probably move up to 2 scoops per day.
We tested the effects of 28-day administration of five ketone supplements on blood glucose, ketones, and lipids in male Sprague–Dawley rats. The supplements included: 1,3-butanediol (BD), a sodium/potassium β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) mineral salt (BMS), medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT), BMS + MCT 1:1 mixture, and 1,3 butanediol acetoacetate diester (KE). Rats received a daily 5–10 g/kg dose of their respective ketone supplement via intragastric gavage during treatment. Weekly whole blood samples were taken for analysis of glucose and βHB at baseline and, 0.5, 1, 4, 8, and 12 h post-gavage, or until βHB returned to baseline. At 28 days, triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured.

“Consumption of KETO//OS before exercise can result in significant decreases in oxygen demand and increases in performance. We recommend 30 minutes before a workout. Note: Pre-workout use is recommended after building up to a full dose. The best way to maximize energy, appetite control and sustain energy is to take KETO//OS first thing in morning. To maximize benefits, build up to 1 serving 3 times daily – morning, afternoon and early evening. May be used with carbohydrate supplements if desired or by itself as a non-carb, highly efficient energy source.”


But some people chose to use supplements to benefit from ketosis (Therapeutic Ketosis), and finally there is the MCT Ketogenic Diet – which in a form of nutritional ketosis (ULC, limited protein, high fat) with a twist – about 30-60% of the fat intake in the diet comes from MCT (Medium Chain Triglyceride) fats. Sources of MCT fats include Pure MCT Oil, Coconut oil and coconut products. The MCT Ketogenic Diet is often used with epilepsy suffers, as the high levels MCT oil create a higher level of ketones in the blood – which helps prevent seizures.
And now, you can take ketone supplements (salts and esters), known as exogenous ketones, without actually restricting anything. According to those promoting this nasty-tasting supplement, that means you can have a brain and body fuelled by ketones, along with all of the supposed health benefits that come with running on fat. Well, don't fall for it.

It comes in a small bottle that usually contains 50-100 strips depending on the type you choose. It’s very thin, and on one end there’s a small square of paper (this is the end you dip in the urine). If there are ketones in your urine, the little paper will change color. The darker it is (light pink up to a purple color) the more it is in your urine. On the bottle, there’s a picture you compare the color of the paper with that can be a very good indication of your current ketone state. 


Halitosis (bad breath) – If you’re on a ketogenic diet you are probably aware that as the body starts to metabolize fat, ketones can cause poor breath. There is very little one can do about this, it’s just the nature of the beast. Unfortunately, this can also arise when using exogenous ketones, but it’s not as lasting as when on a ketogenic diet. Chewing gum or mints is about the best option if it becomes a noticeable issue. This maybe caused by over consumption of the ketone supplement, tailoring the quantity consumed may prevent excess BHB being converted to acetone, which is likely excreted by the lungs.

If you ever wondered how to get into ketosis, know that getting into ketosis is easy and completely natural for your body. All you need to do is follow the ketogenic diet which involves cutting down on carbs and eating lots of fat. You can also get into ketosis through fasting. But if your goal is weight-loss and reaping all the benefits of ketosis, the ketogenic diet is a must.
Medium-chain-triglycerides are fats that are easily absorbed by the body and provide a number of really powerful health benefits. Fast energy, appetite control for better weight loss, increased ketone levels—you name it. They are also one of the most convenient and flexible, too. Add it to a shake, make a smoothie, or take a spoonful of it straight with some water for a quick, healthy keto boost that lasts all day. If you’re the kind of person that struggles to stick to a diet or eat a lot throughout the day, MCT oils are the perfect keto supplement.
As stated above, there appears to be a difference between supplemental and dietary calcium intake, which can be important to keep in mind.  One study found aggregate calcium intakes above 1400 mg per day (from dietary and supplemental intake combined) to be associated with higher death rates, cardiovascular disease, and ischemic heart disease in women[15]. A 2014 meta-analysis found an association between dietary calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality[16]. The meta-analysis actually found a u-shaped relationship, where dietary calcium intakes that were both lower and greater than 800 mg/day were gradually associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality.

Interestingly, the effects of exogenous ketones on blood substrate concentrations were preserved with the metabolic stimulus of a mixed meal. Following KE drinks, FFA and glucose fell and remained low in both fed and fasted subjects, despite higher insulin throughout the fed arm, suggesting that there was no synergistic effect of insulin and βHB to further lower blood glucose or FFA. In agreement with previous work, the threshold for the effects of βHB on glucose and lipids appears to be low (<1 mM), as there was no significant dose-response relationship between increasing blood βHB and the small changes in plasma FFA, TG or glucose across all of the study drinks (Mikkelsen et al., 2015).

Because of how effectively exogenous ketones can reduce hunger for those in ketosis, pay attention to the cues your body gives you. It’s possible to extend your fasts longer than necessary because of a decreased appetite cue. While those who have some weight to lose might be tempted to think this is a favorable side effect, there is a difference between fasting and starving for nutrients. Make sure to get enough food to support your activities and maintain your muscle mass.


I (Kim) researched the topic and planned and ran the experiment under the guidance and supervision of Dr. Andreas Eenfeldt, who touched base with me every step of the way to check the experiment design and execution for scientific rigor (to the greatest degree possible) and who has edited this writeup for quality and trustworthiness reasons. I also consulted with other keto experts and researchers to gather feedback both on the experiment design and the results data. They are referenced in the text when this was the case.
I had the chance to interview Dr. Ryan Lowery, Ph.D. about this in person. He performs some (not peer-reviewed) research on different brands of ketone salts and is listed as one of the “specialists” on Prüvit’s website. He suggested that we had perhaps ran the tests too long after the supplements were taken, stating that blood ketones tend to peak at 30 minutes. This is, however, not what Prüvit themselves state in their article on the 59-minute test, or the promise to reach ketosis in 60 minutes on the Kegenix Prime packaging. Plus, do you really want to spend up to $390/month on a product that gives you the benefits of ketosis for half an hour?
Ketone supplements contain exogenous ketones—synthetic ketones made in a lab. Most use a type of ketone called beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is the same as the ketones the body produces naturally. “We’re literally biohacking," says Amie Heverly, who began taking a ketone supplement called Prüvit last year and now works as a promoter selling Prüvit products. "You’re not adding a foreign substance to your body, because BHB is identical to what your body would naturally produce,” she explains.
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