Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults. – Glucose is the brain’s principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain’s ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. On separate days, 20 subjects with AD or mild cognitive impairment consumed a drink containing emulsified MCTs or placebo. Significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were observed 90 min after treatment (P=0.007) when cognitive tests were administered. beta-OHB elevations were moderated by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (P=0.036). For 4+ subjects, beta-OHB levels continued to rise between the 90 and 120 min blood draws in the treatment condition, while the beta-OHB levels of 4- subjects held constant (P<0.009). On cognitive testing, MCT treatment facilitated performance on the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) for 4- subjects, but not for 4+ subjects (P=0.04). Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02). Additional research is warranted to determine the therapeutic benefits of MCTs for patients with AD and how APOE-4 status may mediate beta-OHB efficacy.


The classical KD consists of a 4:1 ratio of fat to protein and carbohydrate, with 80–90 % of total calories derived from fat [27]. The macronutrient ratio of the KD induces a metabolic shift towards fatty acid oxidation and hepatic ketogenesis, elevating the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) in the blood. Acetone, generated by decarboxylation of AcAc, has been shown to have anticonvulsant properties [28–32]. Ketone bodies are naturally elevated to serve as alternative metabolic substrates for extra-hepatic tissues during the prolonged reduction of glucose availability, suppression of insulin, and depletion of liver glycogen, such as occurs during starvation, fasting, vigorous exercise, calorie restriction, or the KD. Although the KD has clear therapeutic potential, several factors limit the efficacy and utility of this metabolic therapy for widespread clinical use. Patient compliance to the KD can be low due to the severe dietary restriction - the diet being generally perceived as unpalatable - and intolerance to high-fat ingestion. Maintaining ketosis can be difficult as consumption of even a small quantity of carbohydrates or excess protein can rapidly inhibit ketogenesis [33, 34]. Furthermore, enhanced ketone body production and tissue utilization by the tissues can take several weeks (keto-adaptation), and patients may experience mild hypoglycemic symptoms during this transitional period [35].
Most of the information regarding the effects of ketosis come from studies on the ketogenic diet, wherein ketones are made by the liver and become a major fuel source for the body. The ketogenic diet is currently under investigation for its potential therapeutic effects in a number of healthy and disease states. More recently, studies are beginning to reveal that many of the effects observed with the ketogenic diet are mechanistically attributable to ketones, which is a primary reason that exogenous ketones are being developed and studied. However, because they are such a new technology, there’s not a lot of data on exogenous ketones themselves. In a few pre-clinical studies, exogenous ketones have mimicked the therapeutic effects of the ketogenic diet”
Ketologie’s PROBHB is a proprietary, “first of its kind” dietary supplement that is totally unique and different to all other exogenous ketone products on the market. Ketologie’s PROBHB is the only BHB supplement specifically formulated with resistant probiotics to assist the body’s transition into nutritional ketosis and simultaneously support immune and digestive health. Our unique formulation optimizes the pathways for improved communication between the brain and the enteric nervous system; providing superior conditions for BHB uptake across the blood-brain barrier. It’s also delicious (slightly sweet and salty) and affordable as we are able to offer it to you directly, rather than via a multi-level marketing program.
Will taking exogenous slow down my fat loss? Since now before digging into my body for energy/ketones, I will first use up the exogenous ketones I ingest. Also do exogenous ketones somehow help get even more keto adapted, keeping in mind I have been on a strict keto diet without a problem and don’t mind it at all. Outside of performance improvements, do you think exogenous ketones is for someone like me who is primarily looking for fat loss.

Blood d-βHB, pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) and electrolytes measured in arterialized blood samples from resting subjects (n = 7) following a ketone ester or salt drink containing 3.2 mmol.kg−1 of βHB. Shaded areas represent the normal range. Values are means ± SEM. (A) Venous blood d-βHB. (B) Arterialized blood pH. (C) Blood bicarbonate. (D) Blood potassium. (E) Blood sodium. (F) Blood chloride. †p < 0.05 difference between KE and KS, *p < 0.05 difference from baseline value.


There are things you can do to get into ketosis faster. We explain how to get into ketosis and ways to make transitioning into ketosis easier. But first, we go over some facts about ketosis you need to understand before you start your keto journey. We will also explain the science behind ketosis, including how long it realistically takes for your body to make the switch.
While it usually takes 2-7 days for your body to enter into a state of ketosis on a ketogenic diet, there are a few things you can do to kickstart this process. It isn’t guaranteed but it will assist in the process, and may work in extreme cases. Intermittent fasting, exercise, proper sleep, a strict high-fat-low-carb diet, and supplementation can all help fastened the transition process. Whether you’ve fallen out of ketosis after a cheat weekend or maybe you’re somebody who have just started out on your keto journey – here is how to get into ketosis in 24 hours.
I had the chance to interview Dr. Ryan Lowery, Ph.D. about this in person. He performs some (not peer-reviewed) research on different brands of ketone salts and is listed as one of the “specialists” on Prüvit’s website. He suggested that we had perhaps ran the tests too long after the supplements were taken, stating that blood ketones tend to peak at 30 minutes. This is, however, not what Prüvit themselves state in their article on the 59-minute test, or the promise to reach ketosis in 60 minutes on the Kegenix Prime packaging. Plus, do you really want to spend up to $390/month on a product that gives you the benefits of ketosis for half an hour?
In Study 2 a Student's unequal variance t-test with equal SD was used to compare urine βHB concentrations. Additionally, a linear mixed effects model was constructed to estimate partitions of variance in R, using the lme4 and blme packages (Chung et al., 2013; Bates et al., 2015). Feeding state and visit number were fixed effects in this model, and inter-participant variability was a random effect. Inter-participant variability was calculated according to the adjusted generalized R2 metric (as proposed by Nakagawa and Schielzeth, 2013), to partition variance between the fixed effects of feeding, inter-participant variability, and residual variability. The coefficient of variation for βHB Cmax and AUC were calculated using the method of Vangel (1996).
Hello, I’ve tried several different Exogenous Ketone supplements and I believe Perfect Keto may be the best I’ve tried. Thus far I’ve had Keto//OS from Pruvitt, Kegenix, KetoForce, KetoCaNa and Ketond. Out of all these brands both Perfect Keto and Ketond have been the products that hack me into Ketosis quick and for longer periods of time. Perfect Keto is less expensive that Ketones from Pruvitt mainly because Pruvitt and their Network Marketing is all about making money. The flavors of Perfect Keto are much better than Pruvitt.

In the second of these posts I discuss the Delta G implications of the body using ketones (specifically, beta-hydroxybutyrate, or BHB, and acetoacetate, or AcAc) for ATP generation, instead of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). At the time I wrote that post I was particularly (read: personally) interested in the Delta G arbitrage. Stated simply, per unit of carbon, utilization of BHB offers more ATP for the same amount of oxygen consumption (as corollary, generation of the same amount of ATP requires less oxygen consumption, when compared to glucose or FFA).

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