And now, you can take ketone supplements (salts and esters), known as exogenous ketones, without actually restricting anything. According to those promoting this nasty-tasting supplement, that means you can have a brain and body fuelled by ketones, along with all of the supposed health benefits that come with running on fat. Well, don't fall for it.

After a minimal amount of internet "research," I decided to try my first exogenous ketones. I have used the ketogenic diet off and on for at 15 years and my body is pretty efficient at fat adapting. (Usually by the end of 2 strict days, I am in ketosis, but not without symptoms and intense cravings.) I can consistently fast from carbs for 20 - 24 hours and do this consistently. However, around hour 20, my mind begins to negotiate that intermittent fasting is advantageous too and that I can afford to have some carbs once a day. Hence the yo-yo effect.
Venous blood samples (2 ml) were obtained during all visits using a 22 G catheter inserted percutaneously into an antecubital vein. The catheter was kept patent using a saline flush following each sample collection. Additionally, during Study 1, arterialized blood from a catheter inserted into a heated hand (Forster et al., 1972) was collected into heparinized blood gas syringes (PICO 100, Radiometer, Copenhagen) from a subset of participants (n = 7) and immediately analyzed for pH and electrolytes using a clinical blood gas analyser (ABL, Radiometer, Copenhagen).
Your brain has a very tight barrier so not everything in the blood can get through. This is called the blood brain barrier. Because your brain uses 25% of the energy that your entire body uses throughout the day, you need to make sure it is fueled appropriately. Glucose can’t directly cross the blood brain barrier. When you eat carbs, you get swings in energy that is available to cross the blood brain barrier which leads to mental fog.
Another source of the D-BOHB isomer is an evolutionarily ancient energy source for micro-organisms. Poly-BOHB is a long chain of D-BOHB molecules strung end-to-end. It functions in many single-cell organisms as a concentrated energy source similar to glycogen in mammals, but whereas glycogen breakdown releases individual glucose molecules, poly-BOHB hydrolysis releases single D-BOHB molecules.
Hi, I still a little confused about when or how to take this. I am trying to get adapted and minimize the flu. Is it most beneficial before eating, after eating, with food or in place of food? I have been keto in the past but this time I am not switching over to fat burning mode even though my macros are good. ( I am thinking it is just too many calories and carbs at this point but I get hungry!) Help please.

There are three types of ketones produced when you’re on ketogenic diet: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone. The kinds that you’ll find in your supplements are BHB because your body can readily use and absorb them. This means that not all ketones are created equal and there are several different types, each with unique properties that are worth considering when shopping.


Not only is Ketōnd considered one of the best on ketone supplements the market it also currently holds favorable ratings, reaching numbers as high as 98 percent in customer reviews. They absolutely love this product and you will too if you give it a try. You will get some incredible results. Whether you are a busy professionals, athlete, on-the-go moms or dads, or college students you too will love this product.
Until there is more definitive information on the necessary blood levels and the differing proportions of BOHB an AcAc to optimize cellular and organ functions, it will be difficult to specify the dosing and duration of supplemental ketones. However for fuel use, and very likely for exercise performance as well, sustained blood levels of BOHB in the range of 0.5 mM to 1.0 mM are likely to be required. This is achieved physiologically by an estimated ketone production of 50-100 grams per day in a keto-adapted human.
So by taking in the perfect keto base, which are the exogenous ketones (BHB). This will easily put my body into ketosis rather than having to do the ketosis diet? I cant make up my mind on whether to buy the ketone powder and/or the MCT oil powder. What is the benefit of the MCT oil powder? When i read about it on the perfectketo website, it sounds like it does the same job as the perfect keto base. I’m also curious about the bone broths others sell for ketose related stuff. Is it very benedficial even when it has about 600mg of sodium in it?
The second ketone ester compound was developed at the University of South Florida. This is a diester of AcAc and BDO. In rodents, this ketone ester raises blood D-BHB to 1-4 mM and blood AcAc to up to 5 mM.19 There is one published study of this ketone ester in humans; results showed a 2% decrease in 31 km cycling time trial performance.16 This may be due to the high rate of side effects of this ester studied. Other factors may have been low levels of BHB (<2 mM), the short, high-intensity time trial used, or the use of AcAc vs. BHB.
And zero-carb, followed by fasting for two meals, and then followed up by a second zero-carb meal is almost always all you need to get into ketosis fast. By Sunday or Monday morning, after a second night of no carbs, you’ll be in a deep enough ketosis that hunger will crash and your energy will surge to help you transition into your low-carb diet of choice.
Onnit is an incredible company that’s making a massive impacts in the lives of athletes in nearly every sport. From Olympic Gold Medalists, to NFL middle linebackers, Onnit has taken athletic performance to a new level. Providing supplements, food, and training equipment, Onnit was an early adopter of the elite performance booster that is exogenous ketones!

Your brain has a very tight barrier so not everything in the blood can get through. This is called the blood brain barrier. Because your brain uses 25% of the energy that your entire body uses throughout the day, you need to make sure it is fueled appropriately. Glucose can’t directly cross the blood brain barrier. When you eat carbs, you get swings in energy that is available to cross the blood brain barrier which leads to mental fog.
Second, there are inherent metabolic differences between boosting ketones via diet and boosting ketones via supplements. On a ketogenic diet, ketones go up because you’re converting body and dietary fat into ketone bodies. A rise in endogenous ketones means you’re burning fat and building the requisite machinery to metabolize the new energy source. On exogenous ketones, ketones go up because you ate some ketones; conversion of body and dietary fat into ketone bodies goes down if anything.
Hi- Thank you for this super helpful post. I’m new to Keto and supplementing Keytones. I just got the Julian Bakery Keytones and am curious about how to take them as there are no instructions on the packaging. Indeed the website has a diet plan to follow with the keytones but I am very suspicious of it because it is 0 fat which I believe is not healthy for brain or body and given that I have soft tissue and joint issues, I try to eat enough fat daily. I want to lose weight and I crossfit 5 days per week. So how do I best start with using the keytone supplements? I took a scoop full yesterday when they arrived (in the early afternoon) but hadn’t yet eaten and I think that was a mistake because I had immediate diarrhea which lasted a few hours, even after eating.

Also, it’s important to remember that just because something may be SAFE (and to reiterate, I’m not saying a long term ketogenic diet is safe), it doesn’t mean it’s good for you or beneficial. Running Marathons could be considered safe (especially if it’s on a closed race circuit), but does this mean it’s good for you? Or should you be out running marathons every day?


Taking MCT oil (medium chain triglyceride) or coconut oil (contains 60% MCT) can help boost ketone production. This is because your body absorbs MCT very quickly as it bypasses the gallbladder and into the liver to be processed into ketone bodies. Make sure you’re getting unprocessed versions of coconut oil that is labelled as ‘organic’ or ‘extra virgin’. This, along with grass-fed butter, is what I add into my ‘bulletproof’ coffees.

I got the Peaches and Cream flavor of Perfect Keto and it's good; a nice sweet break from all the meat, cheese, and vegetables. I would recommend that you use cold water and a shaker bottle though. It takes a bit of vigorous shaking to get the lumps to melt, but it does melt seamlessly. It has a peach taste, but more like a peach with a bitter aftertaste, which I guess is expected with any ketone supplement. I read that a lot of the available supplements taste awful and this one doesn't taste awful. But don't go into it expecting it to taste like a peach pie. :-) I know some of the other supplements say to mix with a keto beverage; I've seen half and half and heavy cream as mixers because the carbs are low and fat high. I haven't tried that as I am only taking in 1,200 calories per day.


I am a little confused. I can see how EK’s can help up the state of ketosis, but as far is weight loss is concerned, aren’t the ketones you produce naturally created by the breaking down of your own fat? If I supplement with exogenous ketones, will that slow the natural creation of ketones? Especially if I am eating a higher amount of carbs. Would exogenous ketones speed fat loss, or slow it?
Possible GI distress (flatulence) at exceptionally high doses –  In the studies referenced in this article, exogenous ketones taken in large doses occasionally resulted in GI distress, especially flatulence. However, the cause of this is hypothesized to be due to the fact that ketones were mixed in a milky fluid that wasn’t very palatable. If you’re taking a nominal dose of exogenous ketones the likelihood of GI distress is rather low. Moreover, if some GI distress is prevalent, it should improve as you become accustomed to taking ketones.
Hi Rob thanks so much, many people experience inconclusive results from the pee strips, as the ketone concentration in our pee is a measure of ketones not being used by the body. Basically the overflow or unused ketones. As our body becomes more adapted to using ketones, there will be less in our urine. It’s tough to keep the variable constant of how hydrated you are across many pee tests. Don’t be discouraged by pee test results. We have had many times where our blood tests show 1-3mmol/dl BHB but our pee test showed no results. Definitely keep testing (consider using a precision Xtra) and changing the dose to suit your needs. Hope this is helpful!
Ketostix are very unreliable. There are many factors which can alter results such as hydration level, if you’ve worked out recently and the amount of unused ketones in your body to name just a few. Never rely of Ketostix to determine whether you are in ketosis or not. The Precision Xtra blood ketone monitor is the gold standard for testing for ketones in your body. After following a ketogenic diet for a while, you should be able to tell if you are in ketosis or not by the way you feel.
On day 29, rats were sacrificed via deep isoflurane anesthesia, exsanguination by cardiac puncture, and decapitation 4–8 h after intragastric gavage, which correlated to the time range where the most significantly elevated blood βHB levels were observed. Brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen and heart were harvested, weighed (AWS-1000 1 kg portable digital scale (AWS, Charleston, SC)), and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen or preserved in 4 % paraformaldehyde for future analysis.

Fortunately, you don’t need to be a dietary math savant to cash in on these rewards because the supplement eggheads took the liberty of creating exogenous ketones, which act as direct substitutes to the ones your body creates. Unlike other fat burners that give you the skits jitters, these are actually helping exercisers reach new personal bests while getting leaner, and are totally legal. Here’s what you need to know to get a slice of the action safely.

The many roles of magnesium include helping us maintain normal nerve and muscle function, as well as heart rate, supporting a healthy immune system, regulating blood glucose levels, and making energy production and protein synthesis possible[23]. Magnesium is also involved in both aerobic and anaerobic energy production. ATP synthesis (the body’s energy source) depends on enzymes that are activated by magnesium.
That said, there also remains the question of the relative benefits of AcAc versus BOHB, both as independent signaling molecules and as redox modulators in peripheral (aka non-hepatic) tissues. Seen from this perspective, AcAc generated in the liver acts as a NAD+ donor for the periphery, whereas pure BOHB taken orally, to the extent that it is retro-converted to AcAc (Sherwin 1975), potentially deprives the periphery of NAD+.
Zhou Nutrition’s MCT Powder is another great quality MCT powder to try out. Taking a note from Perfect Keto, Zhou uses only Acacia Fiber during its manufacturing process and avoids all use of the common additives and fillers you see in most MCT powders. Zhou’s MCT Powder is made with the patented “goMCT” MCTs. While you don’t get the delicious flavors Perfect Keto have perfected, Zhou’s MCT Powder is a proven product pushing a 4 digit tally in positive reviews. Hundreds have attested to its true lack of flavor and positive ketone results.

Most supplements rely on BHB as the source of their exogenous ketone bodies. BHB is converted to acetoacetic acid with a small quantity converted to acetone through a acetoacetate decarboxylase waste pathway. Some of the acetoacetic acid will enter the energy pathway using beta-ketothialase, which converts acetoacetic acid to two Acetyl-CoA molecules (see diagram below2).
Considering both the broad therapeutic potential and limitations of the KD, an oral exogenous ketone supplement capable of inducing sustained therapeutic ketosis without the need for dietary restriction would serve as a practical alternative. Several natural and synthetic ketone supplements capable of inducing nutritional ketosis have been identified. Desrochers et al. elevated ketone bodies in the blood of pigs (>0.5 mM) using exogenous ketone supplements: (R, S)-1,3 butanediol and (R, S)-1,3 butanediol-acetoacetate monoesters and diester [48]. In 2012, Clarke et al. demonstrated the safety and efficacy of chronic oral administration of a ketone monoester of R-βHB in rats and humans [49, 50]. Subjects maintained elevated blood ketones without dietary restriction and experienced little to no adverse side effects, demonstrating the potential to circumvent the restrictive diet typically needed to achieve therapeutic ketosis. We hypothesized that exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained hyperketonemia (>0.5 mM) without dietary restriction and without negatively influencing metabolic biomarkers, such as blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. Thus, we measured these biomarkers during a 28-day administration of the following ketone supplements in rats: naturally-derived ketogenic supplements included medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT), sodium/potassium -βHB mineral salt (BMS), and sodium/potassium -βHB mineral salt + medium chain triglyceride oil 1:1 mixture (BMS + MCT) and synthetically produced ketogenic supplements included 1, 3-butanediol (BD), 1, 3-butanediol acetoacetate diester/ ketone ester (KE).

Interest in the ketogenic diet is at an all-time high, and for good reason. It’s a great way to lose body fat, gain steady energy throughout the day, increase fat-burning capacity at rest and during exercise, reduce inflammation, and improve cognitive function. Keto also has a number of promising medical applications, including seizure control, enhanced efficacy of chemotherapy, and abatement of age-related cognitive impairment.


(Disclosure: If you purchase any items or services through links on this site, I may earn a (small) commission that helps offset some of my hosting costs. I appreciate your support! Rest assured, any content I post reflects my own opinions and are in no way influenced by any affiliate relationships. Also, I received no compensation from KetoneAid for this post.)
Over the 28-day experiment, ketone supplements administered daily significantly elevated blood ketone levels without dietary restriction (Fig. 2a, b). Naturally derived ketogenic supplements including MCT (5 g/kg) elicited a significant rapid elevation in blood βHB within 30–60 min that was sustained for 8 h. BMS + MCT (5 g/kg) elicited a significant elevation in blood βHB at 4 h, which was no longer significant at 8 h. BMS (5 g/kg) did not elicit a significant elevation in blood βHB at any time point. For days 14–28, BMS + MCT (10 g/kg) and MCT (10 g/kg) elevated blood βHB levels within 30 min and remained significantly elevated for up to 12 h. We observed a delay in the peak elevation of blood βHB: BMS + MCT peaked at 8 h instead of at 4 h and MCT at 4 h instead of at 1 h. Blood βHB levels in the BMS group did not show significant elevation at any time point, even after dose escalation (Fig. 2a). Synthetically derived ketogenic supplements including KE and BD supplementation rapidly elevated blood βHB within 30 min and was sustained for 8 h. For the rats receiving ketone supplementation in the form of BD or the KE, dosage was kept at 5 g/kg to prevent adverse effects associated with hyperketonemia. The Precision Xtra™ ketone monitoring system measures βHB only; therefore, total blood ketone levels (βHB + AcAc) would be higher than measured. For each of these groups, the blood βHB profile remained consistent following daily ketone supplementation administration over the 4-week duration. (Fig. 2b).
If you are trying to lose weight, following a ketogenic diet can help you burn fat fast. However, trying to get into ketosis can be a frustrating experience. Am I eating too many carbs, not enough fat, too much protein? Getting into ketosis usually takes 3 to 5 days at least, and can take people up to two weeks. Recently I have discovered a simple and easy way to get into ketosis very quickly. I went from eating lots of carbs one night, to in ketosis 24 hours later.
Satiety decreased in both cases, slightly less with the supplements than with the placebo: participants reported feeling less hungry after taking the supplements than after taking the placebo. However, we are doubtful whether this would be enough of a difference to impact food intake and therefore induce weight loss indirectly, compared to not taking a supplement at all. Especially since, as noted before, BHB switches off lipolysis.
Nutritional ketosis induced with the KD has proven effective for the metabolic management of seizures and potentially other disorders [1–26]. Here we present evidence that chronic administration of ketone supplements can induce a state of nutritional ketosis without the need for dietary carbohydrate restriction and with little or no effect on lipid biomarkers. The notion that we can produce the therapeutic effects of the KD with exogenous ketone supplementation is supported by our previous study which demonstrated that acutely administered KE supplementation delays central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity seizures without the need for dietary restriction [29]. We propose that exogenous ketone supplementation could provide an alternative method of attaining the therapeutic benefits of nutritional ketosis, and as a means to further augment the therapeutic potential of the KD.
Although most of the research has been done utilizing ketone esters, ketone salt supplementation has the potential to provide additional benefits through the extra electrolytes/nutrients that are required to make the ketones. While ketone esters are expensive due to the manufacturing process involved in making them, ketone salts might be a more convenient option for both inducing a state of ketosis and elevating blood ketone levels for various reasons we will discuss in another article.
When you restrict carbs, the kidneys excrete a lot of sodium. Not replacing this sodium can leave you feeling light headed. I recommend having a big glass of spring water with ½ teaspoon of Celtic sea salt twice a day (first thing in the morning and midafternoon are two times that work well). A long with this, make sure you use a lot of salt on your meals.
Another effect of the ketone drinks was to lower blood glucose, free fatty acids, and triglyceride levels. This sounds great. Elevated levels of all those markers are harbingers of disease, particularly if they remain chronically elevated. But think about what this means. If free fatty acids go down, that means adipose tissue isn’t being liberated for burning.
We demonstrated that therapeutic ketosis could be induced without dietary (calorie or carbohydrate) restriction and that this acute elevation in blood ketones was significantly correlated with a reduction in blood glucose (Figs. 2, ​,33 and ​and4).4). The BMS ketone supplement did not significantly induce blood hyperketonemia or reduced glucose in the rats. The KE supplemented rats trended towards reduced glucose levels; however, the lower dose of this agent did not lower glucose significantly, as reported previously in acute response of mice [59]. MCTs have previously been shown to elicit a slight hypoglycemic effect by enhancing glucose utilization in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients [86–88]. Kashiwaya et al. demonstrated that both blood glucose and blood insulin decreased by approximately 50 % in rats fed a diet where 30 % of calories from starch were replaced with ketone esters for 14 days, suggesting that ketone supplementation increases insulin sensitivity or reduced hepatic glucose output [89]. This ketone-induced hypoglycemic effect has been previously reported in humans with IV infusions of ketone bodies [90, 91]. Recently, Mikkelsen et al. showed that a small increase in βHB concentration decreases glucose production by 14 % in post-absorptive health males [92]. However, this has not been previously reported with any of the oral exogenous ketone supplements we studied. Ketones are an efficient and sufficient energy substrate for the brain, and will therefore prevent side effects of hypoglycemia when blood levels are elevated and the patient is keto-adapted. This was most famously demonstrated by Owen et al. in 1967 wherein keto-adapted patients (starvation induced therapeutic ketosis) were given 20 IU of insulin. The blood glucose of fasted patients dropped to 1–2 mM, but they exhibited no hypoglycemic symptoms due to brain utilization of ketones for energy [93]. Therefore, ketones maintain brain metabolism and are neuroprotective during severe hypoglycemia. The rats in the MCT group had a correlation of blood ketone and glucose levels at week 4, whereas the combination of BMS + MCT produced a significant hypoglycemic correlation both at baseline and at week 4. No hypoglycemic symptoms were observed in the rats during this study. Insulin levels were not measured in this study; however, future ketone supplementation studies should measure the effects of exogenous ketones on insulin sensitivity with a glucose tolerance test. An increase in insulin sensitivity in combination with our observed hypoglycemic effect has potential therapy implications for glycemic control in T2D [40]. Furthermore, it should be noted that the KE metabolizes to both AcAc and βHB in 1:1 ratio [29]. The ketone monitor used in this study only measures βHB as levels of AcAc are more difficult to measure due to spontaneous decarboxylation to acetone; therefore, the total ketone levels (βHB + AcAc) measured were likely higher, specifically for the KE [14]. Interestingly, the 10 g/kg dose produced a delayed blood βHB peak for ketone supplements MCT and BMS + MCT. The higher dose of the ketogenic supplements elevated blood levels more substantially, and thus reached their maximum blood concentration later due to prolonged metabolic clearance. It must be noted that the dosage used in this study does not translate to human patients, since the metabolic physiology of rats is considerably higher. Future studies will be needed to determine optimal dosing for human patients.
d-βHB was measured immediately on whole blood using a handheld monitor and enzyme-based reagent strips (Precision Xtra, Abbott Diabetes Care, UK). Samples were stored on ice, centrifuged and duplicate plasma aliquots stored at −80°C. All urine passed during the visit was collected, the total volume recorded, and 1 ml aliquots taken, frozen and retained for analysis.
Pruvit v Perfect Keto: One of the more popular brands for BHB salts is Pruvit (Keto OS). Pruvit is a good brand, but they do use some additives. Also, Pruvit is an MLM company that has tons of people pushing their products as the best weight loss product in the world. And you have to use one of their representatives’ referral codes to buy it. Learn more about the two in this Pruvit vs Perfect Keto comparison article.
EK use can be compared to the nootropics that have been developed for optimizing focus, memory creation, and faster cognitive performance. While you may not notice this effect on a minute to minute basis if you keep a journal of “forgetful moments” you’ll find that you have fewer of them as time goes on. You’ll also find that you’re able to come up with better ideas, and your workflow is more efficient through the day (10, 11).

There is so much talk about the benefits of a ketogenic diet and its ability to improve fat burning, brain health, energy and anti-aging.  The main units of energy on a ketogenic diet are ketone bodies, of which beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is the main player!  This article will go over the health benefits of BHB and exogenous ketones. Additionally, this article will cover strategies on using exogenous ketones in your daily life.


From my personal experience, there are plenty of ketogenic supplements that certainly do work, but you do have to be careful of the "phonies." You can find highly recommended ketones products that are endorsed by celebrity life coaches such as Timothy Ferris and Joe Rogan; then you also have those infomercial products that are probably as effective as eating Tic Tacs, which is why it is really important to do your research before experimenting. Once you are finished scouring this website full of its information, you should be well-equipped to make a calculated decision on whether this whole thing is for you and that means our mission is complete. 

Interestingly, poly-BOHB has recently been reported to have important roles in mammalian mitochondrial membranes, cell membrane calcium channels, and in exotic functions like protein folding (Dedkova 2014). It exists in a variety of chain lengths, ranging from short to very long. It is not clear if humans can digest and use poly-BOHB consumed in the diet, but in animals, poly-BOHB appears to have probiotic and bowel protective functions. This is a rapidly evolving topic that we will be watching closely.


However, it's important to NEVER overlook the power of exercise and of course sticking to a proper routine to get the most optimized results. The most common mistake people make is by treating any keto supplement like a "wonder drug" that will help them shed weight in their sleep. Seriously... how is that even scientifically possible. So if you are thinking about trying out a particular keto supplement, I would suggest two things:
If you have already mastered the Very Low Carbohydrate (VLC) or ketogenic way of eating, and/or are eating at a caloric deficit, exercising or fasting you are naturally creating the optimal conditions for your body to produce ketones and put your body into nutritional ketosis. By strict adherence to a well-formulated ketogenic diet (complete with higher levels of mineral salts) you should be able to produce all the ketones you need naturally (endogenously). If you are new or inexperienced in ketogenic eating however; or if you or a family member struggles to adhere to a ketogenic diet, then supplementation with exogenous ketones may be very beneficial. Not only will ketone supplements help to mitigate hunger and carb cravings, but they will also help you stave off carb flu symptoms (see below), giving you the best possible chance of long-term success.
Exogenous ketones provide the body with another fuel to employ. Think about it like an electric car that runs on both gas and electricity: by consuming ketones along with carbohydrates, the body will preferentially burn the ketones first, saving the carbohydrates for later. Exogenous ketones allow us to enter a metabolic state that wouldn't occur naturally: the state of having full carbohydrate stores, as well as elevated ketones in the blood. This could be advantageous to athletes looking to boost their physical performance. 
The many roles of magnesium include helping us maintain normal nerve and muscle function, as well as heart rate, supporting a healthy immune system, regulating blood glucose levels, and making energy production and protein synthesis possible[23]. Magnesium is also involved in both aerobic and anaerobic energy production. ATP synthesis (the body’s energy source) depends on enzymes that are activated by magnesium.
Exercising is undoubtedly important when it comes to losing weight. An added bonus of being in a state of ketosis is the ability to improve your exercise performance, but you should also remember that entering ketosis for the first time can be a bit of a challenge for a lot of people. The body is still adjusting to such a dramatic diet change, so exercising may prove to be difficult at first. The key here is to keep going.

If you truly want to optimize health and performance, magnesium should not be neglected. There is still more research to be done on its potential. Good sources of magnesium include whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, green leafy vegetables, and supplements. However, be careful about taking too much magnesium at one time, or else you might end up running to the bathroom in a hurry.
We tested the effects of 28-day administration of five ketone supplements on blood glucose, ketones, and lipids in male Sprague–Dawley rats. The supplements included: 1,3-butanediol (BD), a sodium/potassium β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) mineral salt (BMS), medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT), BMS + MCT 1:1 mixture, and 1,3 butanediol acetoacetate diester (KE). Rats received a daily 5–10 g/kg dose of their respective ketone supplement via intragastric gavage during treatment. Weekly whole blood samples were taken for analysis of glucose and βHB at baseline and, 0.5, 1, 4, 8, and 12 h post-gavage, or until βHB returned to baseline. At 28 days, triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured.

Affiliate Disclosure: There are links on this site that can be defined as affiliate links. This means that I may receive a small commission (at no cost to you) if you purchase something when clicking on the links that take you through to a different website. By clicking on the links, you are in no way obligated to buy.

Medical Disclaimer: The material on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. Always consult your physician before beginning any diet or exercise program.

Copyright © lowcarbtransformation.com

×